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  1. Marco says:

    Salve, I just have one question/curiosity.
    You have aprofondito the Android issue from this point?

    There should be the solution to connectivity.
    I have had similar login problem with Android bluetooth, because of hardware profiles, and I understand the problems you have encountered.

    Unfortunately I don't really have time to participate or lend a hand.
    Mine is just a suggestion that you have probably already assessed.

    Good job!

    • Livio says:

      Now Windows 10 It is so convenient and economical, both tablets and other portable devices, not worth wasting time with Android, Linux and Mac.

      If anyone wants to try it please. We have devoted far too much time in the past, with bad results, for which we do not wish to repeat the experience.

  2. Castro says:

    Salve, I am a student and am doing a thesis on olive oil analysis with the help of theremino oil meter and based this assemble the measuring instrument. I wanted to ask you if you could send me the circuit diagram printed and connection cables.
    Thank you

  3. Renato says:

    Hello everyone ,my name is renato have a passion for amateur archaeology,for my research I would need a georadar,but they cost a fortune,I was wondering if I could make one with theremino
    I state that unfortunately do not understand anything about electronics,If anyone can help me I'd appreciate that,Thank you

    • Livio says:

      With existing modules you can't do. Several times we thought we'd give forms for metal detector and ground-penetrating radar, but I don't know just tell you if and when we have time, Since it's quite complex projects. Meanwhile you could help us by collecting in a short text the characteristics of existing ground-penetrating radar. I recommend short, a page at most, otherwise we do faster searching for yourself in Internet, they understand what it says.

      If you have a long time you could also discover patterns and fairly mechanical configurations that can be built by hobbyists. Excluding, for example,, the georadar so cumbersome that they need a truck equipped and those stratospheric characteristics and cost even more exaggerated than others.

      Also try to open Google and search “Georadar schematics”, “Ground-penetrating radar open source”, “Georadar DIY” and the like. But, for pleasure, Please do not submit dozens of links starting from tomorrow. To be useful to your research needs to be “predigested” and finish in just a few lines of text that are really useful otherwise, as already written, would that take less time finding yourself.

  4. Giovanni says:

    I read the description of the sensor dust and found it interesting, though I would better understand the part where you say that you can recognize the particle size, and even count them one by one, on the basis of the output pulses. What puzzles me is that the LED is already departing piloted pulse, So how do you distinguish the pulses due to the passage of particles from those pilot LED on/off? How long does the passage of a speck of dust in front of the light beam, compared to the activation period of the LEDS?
    I would make myself experimenting with this kind of SHARP's sensors and this seems to have a good price/performance ratio, but it is precisely the impulse operation that raises doubts. If you have any picture where you see the pulses in the presence of dust more or less fine would be useful.
    Thanks in advance

    • Livio says:

      We apologize for not answering immediately. And’ was a mistake of “mistake” or better than “forgetfulness”.

      The pulses are very frequent (about 500 every second) so with large particles you have dozens of pulses during the passage of a single particle. The signal that you see is a climb, a flat area and a descent. The zone time flat from approximately the size.

      Medium particle there is a flat area but only a climb and a descent and the particle size is approximately given by the pulse height.

      Small particles do not rely, make a mist that decreases the light coming through, and then you see a continuous signal. Then for small particles (fine particles) We can deduce the amount per cubic meter from how tall is this basic voltage level.

      In order to obtain the best results you have to adjust the airflow pretty slow. We use a small fan (two or three centimetres to the side) with a funnel and adjusts the tension with a variable power supply to get the right speed. The sawdust end is a good sample powder with granules of approximately the same diameter. Talcum powder has very small granules. While smoking may be used for fine particles.

      I'm sorry but the software is among the many things we have under construction and we have no images at the moment.

      • Giovanni says:

        Thanks for the reply. But then piloted the sensor 500 Hz and not 100 Hz as indicated on the datasheet Sharp? Now I'm doing some experiment myself with an Atmel ATTiny and I'm curious to see the impulses that I'll get as it becomes operational, If you tell me to 500 Hz you can sample better I'll try to ascend by frequency.

        • Livio says:

          Even our evidence…

          A 500 Hz the capacitor will not charge at all and the led is less light. It could be that you are loved 100 Hz, It is just slow the airflow five times to get the same results. Of course, it also takes a time five times to collect the same amount of data. But if the weather of each analysis is not a problem (and usually it is not) then you can slow the flow as desired and “see” well the passage of particles.

          I forgot, the time of passage is given mainly by the size of the led beam and not particle diameter. Only larger particles do increase slightly. In most cases see them move serves only to count them but not to determine the size. The size is obtained (very roughly) by varying the amount of light that cause.

          One thing you may have missed is the sample-hold of our scheme. The sample-hold gives an output not impulsive but continues. This makes reading data with an Adc, because Adc does not need to be synchronous.

  5. Paul says:

    Salve, I am a new curious of your system. I find it very interesting that I decided to buy some modules to test (Kit Theremino superpack master V5). I found then extremely intigranti FlatPC modules with Windows 10 installed. Do you have any news about their marketing? The store appear but do not carry the possibility of purchase nor a possible date. I imagine that you don't have any news but the thing is so inspiring that I must ask you if you have updates.

    Thanks and congratulations for the work.

    • Livio says:

      We're doing everything we can to hasten the design. But dealing with the Chinese always requires a lot of time, for both the distance but especially for the language.

      Meanwhile there are various options:

      1) Meegopad sticks with Windows10. Virtually identical to a FlatPC, same processor, same performance. We tried them and they are great with all our applications. You can find them on Amazon or on eBay for about 80 Euro.

      2) The “Intel YUNTAB tv box 10 Compute MINI PC” located on Amazon for 97 Euro, He, too, with the same performance.

      3) Tablet with 7 inches or 8 inch. For example the “Mediacom WinPad W801 Tablet PC” from 74 Euro, or the “Mediacom WinPad W700 Tablet PC” from 41 Euro shipping included. And they're all Atom Z3735G, i.e. QuadCore for 1.8 GigaHz. The former has 16 Gigs of memory, the second 32 Giga (It means bearing dozens of our applications at once and even some movies).

      In all cases, it must be ensured that the operating system is Windows, otherwise our applications do not work.

  6. Rodolfo says:

    Hello, I downloaded the library for LTSpice, great, selection, Thank you.
    I have encountered a problem using a Darlington transistor, because the subcircuit invoked by the template is not found.
    You know you tell me how to fix?
    Thank you, Greetings.

    • Livio says:

      You're right we tried now and darlington not working, the darlington are part of the original libraries LTSpice and we treated. Many parts of the original libraries are pretty approximate or cumbersome to use…

      Now we're going to see the examples how to use them and if we find out something I will write in the next message.

      • Livio says:

        It looks like you have to handwrite the name. You must right click on the component and in line “SpiceModel” To write, for example,, “TIP131” and then give OK.

        If you cannot open the following file and see how they did it:

        If you can't find that file please write to and I will send.

  7. Giacomo74 says:

    Hello, I need your help.
    I'm venturing to write a small piece of software with VB 2008 for the simple reading of sensors with theremino.
    To get the value of reading of the slots, I used your class Class_ThereminoSlots. vb I got from Theremino_EmptyApp. So far so good except (already in debug) the software does not read the slot on my pc with windows 10. I tried it on two other pc (one with Xp and one with Vista) and it's all good. HAL works fine on all three ii pc but it seems that on my windows 10 the class that is not working. Do you have any idea to suggest me?

    • Livio says:

      You have to compile for X 86 or the computer running in 64 bits fail to put in contact the slots with other applications.

      The systems in 64 bits are clumsy and messy and even they go faster, except for some applications such as video editing and 3D editing. For everything else just create problems and go even slower because they eventually move 64 bit even when I could use only one.

      In systems 64 bit there are two separate areas System 32 that contains the applications in 64 bits and SysWow 64 containing those 32 bit ………. ???

      It's not a mistake is just so. The names are sadistically as opposed to the content. There are compelling reasons that led to this decision, but it would take too long to explain here. Suffice it to say that the SysWow 64 is a “subsystem capable of running the applications to 32 bit versions of Windows 64 bit”.

      This complication you pay with delays of any kind and you get two results: (1) Double memory deals. (2) Everything gets slower and messed up. The only ones who benefit are, as written before, the big programmoni as 3DSMax (for 3D) or professional video editing (who doesn't use hardly anyone).

      To avoid encountering these problems we compile all our applications to 32 bit.

      And we have also verified that compile to 32 or to 64 bits does not change anything in terms of speed (valid for simple applications and well written as our).

      The easiest way to have everything well configured is from an application ready, type the “Empty App” and change it.

      Some operations (for example, delete the file “his” o not copy because it is “hidden” and therefore cannot be selected when copying files) can change the setting “x 86” and make it “Any CPU”. So before you build you should always make sure that the box is set to “x 86”. If you miss the box follow the notes explained here:

      How to add the way “x 86” an application is explained at the end of the first chapter of this page:

      Since you're going to learn how to write applications for the system Theremino you better read the whole page “Downlads/Introduction” (“Notes-on-software” IN ENGLISH). There are tips that could save you a lot of time:

      • Giacomo74 says:

        Thanks Livio and excuse my amateurism. I had read that page at the beginning of my interest in the system Theremino and I had totally forgot about. But now I have another problem: in my pc (Lenovo G50) I have a Windows 8.1 original for which I “advantage” free offer of Microsoft to move to Windows 10. That must be why the Framework 3.5 I will not install? >(

        • Livio says:

          It's not for Window10 which works fine, We have dozens of computers of all kinds.

          You're probably not the right installation set. Maybe instead of our site you should make that official. Or maybe DotNet haven't already and the problem is another.

          Usually Windows10 does not even require to install DotNet manually, He does himself andandoselo to search the Internet. Alerts missing, If you install and a minute later works. But you must be connected to the Internet and give it permission to do so.

          There could be problems if you use an antivirus instead of Windows Defender. Do not trust antivirus, uninstall them immediately, It's them who create viruses, read here:

          • Giacomo74 says:

            Ok. I checked in windows registry
            HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESOFTWAREMicrosoftNET Framework SetupNDP
            and I found it already installed.
            Thanks Livio

  8. Gianni c says:

    Hi everyone I am gianni and novello system theremino…but “to me I like a lot”
    For lello or Livy.. I did not understand however I thank and compliment me.
    Regarding my concerns about changing the number of slots by the cnc program, I have complicated life for nothing…I was thinking more complicated and was looking for a solution by changing the statements from vb…….I'm a ….silly I realized that just change the number in the script by teremino hal for example:by param column 1 change n7 in n 32 and the chain end stop working.
    I think I did alright.. If I'm wrong please help me thanks.
    Sure, if it's so simple ,complimenting increase
    Thanks lello or Livius for giving me the imput of the simplicity of the thing

    • Livio says:

      And’ even easier… no column param1 # 7, etc… Slot numbers can change directly in the boxes of the HAL, without even going to open the configuration file.

      However, consulates, It happens to everyone. Theremino the system is rather atypical for which at first it takes some’ time to understand the fundamental techniques.

      First of all you should read everything about the slots on this page:

      And then also read the instruction file of HAL, you download along with HAL and you can start from its menu “Help/Instructions” (But first it is good that open the Language menu and set it in Italian).

      And anyway if you have any problems do not lose too much time, ask and we will consolidate for the simplest solution.

    • Livio says:

      Since you asked of Livio and di Lello, If you want to clear your head you can see us here:

      We are only electronic fan site, We do not sell anything and we explain only “How do you”.

      Lello instead deals with the ThereminoStore site and runs it on behalf of a Chinese company based in Shenzen.

      • Gianni c says:

        Thanks for the explanations of lello and livio…I had tried from the but I couldn't…now try again, Maybe it was wrong something

        • Livio says:

          To change the Pin to a Slot in the HAL:
          – Select the row for the Pin so that it becomes highlighted in blue.
          – Go to the section “Pin property” and Individuals the box “Slot”.
          – Change the number with mouse and keyboard.

          If you can't write us here or, Hopefully we'll hear even over the phone and we'll understand immediately why.

          • Gianni c says:

            Sorry livio, I solved even before your post exhaustive, It was just me that thought more complicated and I had escaped the squares because I was concentrating to calibrate their engines.
            Thank you and instead I have another question to ask yourself.. as you progress you get tired of me….

  9. Gianni c says:

    Hello livio, my cam I question and has a list of post processor….you have one particularly recommend for cnc teremino?
    I'm using featurecam of autodesk, but the codes i tried always give me errors.
    Thank you

    • Livio says:

      Select the easiest cams that are.
      Give it a name and save it to your.
      Try doing a GCode.
      See that give error codes GCode.
      Tell the cam not to use codes that give error.

  10. Bart Provo says:

    Query: DAA manual in English?
    I am using ThereminoMCA and DAA on a a cheap laptop to
    obtain demonstration radiation energy spectra from laboratory samples
    in a NaI(Tl) scintillation-well detector & PMT on an old (circa 1960’s)
    Philips LX1100 Isotope Selector system.
    Am greatly impressed with T.MCA and the supporting documentation.
    Unfortunately I am monolingual and Daa.pdf is in Italian (?).
    I would appreciate an English translation.
    Thanking you,

  11. vital1 says:

    I have set up a radiation monitoring Station at Caloundra on the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia. The local background level here shot up to + 40% above average on some days, in June 2017. I have been investigating possible sources for this significant background level increase.

    Caloundra Report June 2017

    Monitoring Station Location Map

    There was a steady increase in background levels in early June 2017, significantly above average.

    As this event started in early June, the bench area around the monitoring GammaScout Geiger counter was cleaned, and the GammaScout was also cleaned to eliminate the possibility of dust contamination. This made no difference, as background levels remained higher than usual.

    It was mostly dry for the month, with only 20mm of rain for the whole month. The local live radon monitor did detect small increases in local Radon levels that coincided with recorded background radiation level increases. These Radon level increases would have been a contributing factor to the background level increase, but not significant enough to be the only factor.

    June month day average background chart, created from GammaScout Geiger counter 60 second data logging.

    The June 2017 Cairns Caloundra comparison chart, shows that Cairns did not experience the background swings that Caloundra did. Cairns is located much further up the east coast of Australia, in the tropics. Thanks to the Cairns station operator for providing this comparison.

    Water Tank Filter Test

    Here is a test of 34 grams of organic material caught in a local water tank inlet filter.

    The main isotopes detected were Beryllium Be-7 and Lead Pb-210. Beryllium Be-7 can be created naturally in trace amounts by spallation in the upper atmosphere by cosmic rays. Lead Pb-210 is the decay daughter of naturally occurring Radon-222 decay.

    Taking the difference in sensitivity into account, the Be-7 peak is around 14 times higher than than the chart indicates. The Pb-210 would be around twice as high as shown on the chart.

    That is a lot of Be-7 in 34 grams of material. Would the levels of Pb-210 and Be-7 detected in the organic material collected from the water tank filter be sufficient to explain the significantly elevated local background levels here in June?

    My Theory

    There must have been a significant amount of cosmic ray spallation happening in the upper atmosphere recently, to produce this much Be-7.

    The sun is becoming far less radiant. The sun is going into one of it’s quiet periods. These occur approximately every four hundred years. Less radiance means the sun’s heliosphere is much weaker. The sun’s heliosphere acts as a shield, protecting the Earth from in coming cosmic rays. A much weaker heliosphere means more cosmic rays strike the upper atmosphere, which results in more atmospheric spallation, hence more Be-7 is detected in the water tank filter test.

    I notice that when the elevated detections occurred in June, the wind was mostly coming from an easterly direction, off the Pacific Ocean. This suggests that volcanic and earthquake releases of naturally occurring Radon-222 into the atmosphere, was also a contributing factor.

  12. promark92 says:

    in that I'm running with my cnc I need to make advancements with absolute values, I read that G90 is implemented but when I run
    the code comes in 10 and then goes to the location 35 No start from scratch.
    I would understand if I'm doing something wrong, If I forgot to declare something before or else.
    Thank you

    • Livio says:

      G90 means that from then on all coordinates are absolute respect to zero.

      But in the zero-relative coordinates are always absolute ThereminoCNC.
      Then the code simply confirmed existing situation G90.
      Then G90 does absolutely nothing.

      If the desire was to have relative coordinates (G91 and G92), I'm sorry, but there are no coordinates.
      We must tell the postprocessor of CAM to only use absolute coordinates.

      If you can not help but use relative coordinates you should buy a USB to Parallel adapter and use the application Mach3.

  13. Franco says:

    Hello Livio, I'm considering to tour the A4988, on all 5 I purchased an anomaly in settandoli 8 and 16 microstep; the current generated in the first level micro-steps of 8 or of 16 After moving to zero, both towards the positive towards the negative is greater than that which must be, i.e., almost equal to the next microstep power, in normal use you'll hardly notice, but the incident would definitely on positioning precision, I'd be curious to know if they're just my 5 that way, or is a common feature of this driver, the signal is identical in both phases, displayed on a 7623A with P6042 with very low pacing pulses Tek probe, about one second, If you get the time to do a check tell, Thank you.

  14. Franco says:

    The engines on test (3) are old MAE former Olivetti, replacing them with a Sonceboz and Minebea the phenomenon is much less evident but always present, could be due to the imperfect engine mechanical construction?

    • Livio says:

      I'm sorry, We don't know these drivers so deeply, are produced from Pololu and don't we designed them ourselves but “Allegro MicroSystems”.

      However, I am convinced that you could compare the others and will be all the same. Datasheet speaks of different operation modes (Low Current Microstepping / Mixed Decay Operation etc…) Depending on the power and preferences for that maybe you could make them work differently.

      See especially pages 7 and 8 where do you see the light on “Mixed Decay Mode” with “Missed steps” that seems to me like what you wrote.

      However, you should carefully read the handout and probably you'd discover why act like that and if you can do something to change their behavior.

      Another important consideration is that the micro-steps you should use to reduce vibration and not to increase accuracy. For example in my cutter every full step does 5 cents. This resolution is already excellent for machining (greater than the precision of mechanics) but with the microstep the drill vibrates less and works better.

      Why do I say that the micro-steps do not increase the accuracy? Because the intermediate positions are only general guidelines and just make more or less torque to shift the axis of the engine compared to this position “ideal”.

      If you have a car that is based on precise positioning data from micro-steps you should therefore also ensure that the couple on the PIN is always very small, Ideally zero.

      If you have a car like this and you are unable to resolve by reading the datasheet so you should try A4988 DRV8825 not good. I don't know how they will behave in your case but are significantly different (designed by Texas Instruments) and then they will behave differently.

      • Franco says:

        Thanks Livio of tip, curioserò best in the datasheet of the component, the interest for these drivers is only for pleasure, I don't have any car that you use, I will try the 8825, Thanks again, Hello.

  15. Hello Livio,
    I discover only now this interesting blog and being interested in the realization, on their own, a system Theremino, I kindly ask you where can I purchase the various components (in particular the ICS). I'm not a musician but I would appreciate an electronic and try my hand at this project to generate sounds and chords to put as musical commentary to videos of my production.
    Also I wonder if I can interfacing Arduino with a similar system, Since I use Arduino for any other purpose, and have the necessary equipment for any experiment (function generator, Oscilloscope, etc…).
    Thanking you, I wish you a happy day.

    Gian Battista Pettinelli

    • Livio says:

      Individual components (integrated, resistances etc..) you buy from Farnell or Mouser or on eBay. And lists of components to buy are in projects of the Master and CapSensor that you download from this page:

      Keep in mind though that order all components requires many hours of work, probably days, also because often something missing and you must find alternatives.

      Then you also have to consider that you will need a PIC programmer to program the firmware in integrated and that learning how to use it, do the right cables etc.. It might take a week (There are always minor issues and minor errors).

      Finally it is said that you are working as they should because you may have overlooked the importance of any particular or have done something wrong.

      These premises were to advise you to take a Master and one or two CapSensor on thereminostore or on eBay. All counted spend less than to ship them.

      But of course if you want to have the pleasure to build them from scratch all this not worth more, in which case we will always be available to help you.

      With regard to the Arduino sorry, We don't know him so I don't know how you could use it. Our modules are read via USB and cannot communicate with an Arduino. From what little I know Arduino does not use a real virtual serial USB but. Supposedly a Arduino could solve the problem of communication with our modules but then should translate all firmware and software that we wrote to play the Theremin and this would not just longer but just impossible. Our software would exceed a hundred times his memory capacity that its computing power. Arduino has the math coprocessor and our application ThereminSynth it really needs.

  16. Claudio says:

    Good morning Livio.
    Waiting for the card masterV5 for the first experiments I am working with Theremino-SDR: you have done a really great job, better than other programs sdr privileging menu, plugins and buttons than the ease of use that doesn't detract from the completeness of Theremino-SDR.
    I connected Theremino-SDR to an arduino which will check a generator DDS to I2C: for writing the slot M as often as I used Theremino-serial and remote tuning works perfectly.
    Are in trouble for reading slot M + 10 with the signal level: I know that just a few changes to the source present on your site, but my skill of programmer will stop to fortran (!) and some fragment of C.

    And’ can read and write the slots from Processing? Is there any component to be installed? You know someone has developed a bi-directional bridge (the geiger transmits but does not receive)?
    The exchange of data would then be very easy: sending a positive number you write the slot M (also fixed) as often as sending a negative number it includes reviewing the slot M + 10 with the signal tuned as Theremino Convention-SDR.

    Congratulations again for your work: is truly remarkable and innovative!

    • Livio says:

      I'm sorry but an example for Processing there is. But we did MaxMsp examples that should be very similar. And also to communicate over the network via UDP with OSC messages. And there are also examples for each language from C++ to Python, the VBA (Visual Basic For Applications – Excel), CSharp, VB6, etc… so I'm sure when you will know better the system will find a way to get what you need.

      But I do not understand what could serve an Arduino, you are already on a PC with all the power of a real operating system, You can use a TouchScreen Tablet that gives you a wonderful Panel, a quad core processor and a thousand other useful things including batteries and charging circuit, Add an Arduino is like adding bicycle pedals in a Ferrari.

      On second thought maybe I understood, in fact you wrote “waiting for Master…”, but you also wrote “an Arduino which will check…” and that I just don't get.

      • claudio says:

        Thanks for the reply!
        Arduino I just need to check a generator dds working in i2c: I read in your blog that the master theremino does not handle that Protocol. The dds will be in step with the tuned frequency from rds- theremino to achieve a kind of track between external generator and tuner on PC.
        I had already seen that for MaxSmp and Vb have developed some plugins that handle read/write slot. If, as you have already done for the office macro, in the near future will develop one for Processing (a library with only two functions ReadSlot and WriteSlot) I think many will love it. While waiting I'll try to “involve” some other interested (and more skilled than me!) to write a bridge in both directions to read and write the serial slots.

        PS. right stamttina the postman handed me the masterV5 I had ordered Saturday: It will be an interesting week!

        • Livio says:

          You may generate a frequency by 250 Hz to 5 FastPWM of the Master outputs with. Adding a mosfet could convey with what Watts. Then changing the value of a slot you may transmit in AM or CW. And finally, setting a filter close in SDR (some Hz only) You may go away with ridiculous powers. Nice experiment to do with three or four components throughout.

        • Livio says:

          Starting from the current bridge I don't think it's too hard to do two-way. I assume you're talking about SerHAL:

          You could ask Marco Russiani who wrote it, If you have time to expand it. Is your mail page, write him.

  17. B says:

    Hello, I need some info. I'm trying to join adc-2v theremino to a strain gauge(transducer) flush with the aim to measure the movement of a piston. Can you tell me if you have any similar applications that can do the trick?

    • Livio says:

      A strain gauge is in fact a quarter of a load cell. Then you should add three resistors of equal value to strain gauge and build a full deck. The bridge must be connected in the same way that you would use for a load cell.

      How are the bridges in four resistors you find in Internet, for example here:

      How to set the Adc24 you find on page 20 the instructions of Adc24.

      • B says:

        Thank you for answer, I was able to reduce/diversify my search radius. Now, I saw these “Sharp IR distance sensors” always from your site, the three models have different measurement range all calculated in cm, but there is no specified accuracy, is in cm which is also?
        If you are cm, There is no way to get to the mm or tenth of mm?
        Also I read that you need to check and recheck the connection between sensor and adc, can you show me a datasheet to create such links?

        • Livio says:

          The precision of infrared sensors is very coarse. You probably have a few millimeters errors, but worse still don't have a linear relationship between displacement and tension. Look at the curves and you'll see that I'm not fees.

          If you need to measure a shift maybe you should use linear potentiometers that are very precise. If you connect them to a Adc16 of our Master module you will have an accuracy of around a tenth of a millimeter on a 10 or 20 cm. If you connect to a Adc24 form you will have an even more precision.

          • B says:

            Ok! Thank you very much! I jumped on the sharp laser sensors. I see they have much higher voltages and currents, resistance from my ADC 24-V2, I calculated the resistors required, But if I had a wiring diagram to compare them would be quieter. Can you advise me something?

            • Livio says:

              Sharp sensors that know not the laser, with an infrared LED.

              Are we talking of the same sensors, that is, the ones you find in this page?

              If they are then:

              1) Are so imprecise that there is no need of Adc24, You can link it to a Master Adc16.

              2) Their output voltage goes from zero to 3 Volt about. So I'm not “much higher voltages than bearable”.

              3) You also wrote “and currents” and it is understandable. What counts is send to the Master or Adc24 a voltage between 0 and 3.3 volts and these sensors do.

              So we don't want resistors. The only thing that you have to be careful you do not reverse the positive and negative of the power supply and do not exchange the signal wire by mistake with a mass or with the positive.

              If you want to be sure you make the links doing well attention and then before powering send us some pics links and check them.

              To send the photos, please write to:
              “Engineering at sign theremino dot com”

  18. Giacomo says:

    Good evening, Thank you for thinking of theremino is really powerful reading your projects. My name is James I just started using theremino .
    My project is to create a program for the management and the burning of a wood chip boiler. I started using theremino automation but I can not run any commando to master module except turn the LEDs , I can't run the commands if else . Wonder if there is a guide for the program with some examples in order to practice?
    My end would make programs in vbnet to create a GUI for the user ; can you advise me of the valid manuals? I am happy and programming to fasting.
    Thanks in advance for the help

    • Livio says:

      There are hundreds of guides on the internet but reading manuals isn't the right way.
      To learn how to program you take examples of simple programs, they try and change them. Then you go to read how other programs are written they do operations that affect and copy the instructions from them.

      System theremino there are over 50 examples of apps that do just about anything, There is no better guide.

      But we must take into account that for learning to program it takes infinite patience and a sea of time. Something you learn in the early years but to become really good at it takes decades. And not everyone can devote their lives to programming, There are also other things to do in this world. For this reason we have prepared theremino the system that allows you to do very well without programming, or by making small changes to our applications.

  19. Anonymous says:

    Hello livio I will follow your advice.
    I can't find a program already done for process control can you tell me where to find it?
    Thank you

  20. Franco maccio says:

    Hello Livio, I ask for advice with regard to the devices to be used in the security system of a heavy metal door driven by hydraulic Pistons; visible laser emitter, positioned on the inside corner., first mirror- second mirror- receiver, the perimeter is protected, could you suggest between which models Orient for two components? Second problem, have a signal with a resolution of 1-2 mm, proportional to the distance the piston rod ( 75 Racing cm), Obviously the two systems, integrated with hydraulic actuators doesn't use computers, I appreciate if you can suggest me something.

  21. Marco says:

    Hello Livio ,
    I follow with great interest your. articles and vs.. accomplishments may I ask , If you can add the date to each new addition of text in various applications?
    This is because I would simplify if new information ( …:) you know at a certain age memory leaves something’ to be desired)
    Thank you

    • Livio says:

      What would be the “adding text” ?
      There is no documentation files for the date at the foot of each page.
      In the application download there is version and often a list of previous versions.

      What matters are the executables is the documentation (PDF), the sentences on the site sometimes improves but you cannot add dates every time, in the end we would give each row and it would not read the text.

      • Marco says:

        Hello Livio,

        I meant in the application page , Maybe beside the title the last time you updated something , for example the first title . “turn on the LEDs” I'd put ” turn on the LEDs – 1-12-2017 2 so at a glance I can see that for that argument is current as something.

        Thank you


        • Livio says:

          Your idea is not bad but we already have a better method, the page “News and updates”. On that page we write every major innovation:

          With dates you should iterate through them all to find the news. Instead with the News page just read the latest messages.

          Also the latest news appears top right on each page and simply click on it in order to get right to the news pages.

          Sure that the blog pages contain only a small number of comments to see previous press “Older comments” located at the bottom of the page..

  22. Gianni says:

    Good. Day Livio,
    I wanted to know if it will come out a new master, This is because I wanted to buy the latest version.
    Unfortunately are subject to Murphy's law I purchased 3 and is released 4, I purchased the 4 and is released 5, is a little’ What I wouldn't buy now 5 and comes out a new release.
    Thank you

    • Livio says:

      Will not come out a new Master for long time.
      Anyway 4 and 5 are absolutely identical, have the same firmware and have just a few legs wrapped in half a millimeter.

      The 3 is pretty much the same too, If the programs with the latest firmware and balances two pins in place de quartz small, becomes identical to the others. Or send it to you free updates thereminoshop Prakash.

  23. Roberto says:

    Hello Livio,

    First, many congratulations for the work you do and make available to all.
    Something more unique than rare these days…
    I would like to ask, wanting to realize the Pulsometer proposed by you, Optek led op240c can be replaced with op240b. The only difference seems to be in the range of apertures radiant incident.
    This is to avoid exorbitant shipping costs to get the version "c".

    Thank you

    • Livio says:

      You can safely use version B, nothing changes.
      The B version emits on average 30% more light and, looking at the datasheet, We also see that from one component to another, there may be differences even more.
      But so is the trimmer that can offset more than these small differences.

      • Roberto says:

        Well. Sorry again Livio, Maybe I did not read all instructions, But what I rely then to adjust the trimmer?

        Thanks again.

        • Livio says:

          If there is too much signal lower trimmer and vice versa. The signal you see in the graph of Theremino ECG and is quite evident to understand if it is too much or too little.

          Unfortunately some people, within a few hours, they have a very low signal. Maybe take out the trimmer and turn it into a real potentiometer could be useful.

          Or you could use the version that we did for the Arduino Nano, which has an automatic gain controller firmware.

          The Arduino version has the auto gain but the signal is slightly noisier. I don't know which one to advise you, basically both are fine. You pick depending on whether you prefer a preamp all analog, to assemble with discrete components, or a sensor ready plus an Arduino Nano.

          If attention to take an Arduino nano with chip CH340 because those with the FT232 chip are no good.

  24. BR1 says:

    Hello I am excited about the emotion meter but I know little nothing PC. Could someone help me showing me the steps to assemble and use a? Thank you very much

    • Livio says:

      I would recommend you start with something simple:
      – Connect two SIGNAL GND Pin steel cylinders 1 of the Master
      – Use the application and configure the Pin 1 as Res16
      – Keep the application
      – Try it with the EmotionMeter application what you can get

      Possibly later you might use or a DiffMeter or a Adc24 in order to have a differential input and do something more complex.

      With a differential input you should give send a weak current with two resistors. A minimum of electronic knowledge it takes.

      Maybe in the future you can ask for a form DiffMeter thereminostore Marley adapted for this use and teach you how to use it:

      • BR1 says:

        Thank you so much I'm beginning with this information as soon as i see the results let you know. Thanks again.

        • Livio says:

          Probably you can help also Maurizio, now I write and tell him to take a look at these messages.

          • Anonymous says:

            Hello Livio and BR1.

            The electronic part of this project is pretty simple.
            I tried various configurations, and apparently they work all.
            The most critical part consists of sensors, that must have a large contact surface, and consist of special materials.
            The original sensors of the devices the years 80 were two empty paint cans, at that time were constructed of tinned iron externally.
            Afterwards, they were replaced by plastic tubes wrapped in silver, definitely the best. You can find in internet, but they are expensive.
            Why to work properly, you have to hold the sensors for a few minutes: at one time it was said that you should warm up.
            The use should be done by two people, one who takes up the sensors and the other that reads the instrument, and ask questions that simolano emotions in the subject measured.
            Ask us if you need.

  25. BR1 says:

    Hi thanks for the Info. I have to start from scratch and recover the components before , for me the easy part is that of’ uses to which they can do , the technical side of things much more complicated because I know very little, that's why I wanted to ask you virtually total assistance and step by step if it is not a problem. Meanwhile, I would like to know what should I buy and where can I find it, then when I recovered everything we can proceed. If you want to help me do me a huge favor. Thank you so much in the meantime.

    • Maurizio says:

      Hi BR1.
      You say you are unfamiliar, so I write to you step by step instructions and tips.

      First of all get the basic hardware, that is, a Theremino master, a little’ wires to the inputs with already wired connectors, some fixed value resistors (1K, 2,2K, 4,7K, 10K) and a 10 k potentiometer.
      While you wait for the material to download apps from Theremino, — HAL and Emotion meter, and take us confidence. Read with calm and attention help files, and if you're not sure ask.
      Start to experiment to understand how the system works, by connecting the master with a USB cable and taking familiar, start by reading the value of some resistors and potentiometer directly by HAL.
      Then start the application emotion meter, and here begins by reading the value of resistors and potentiometer.
      When the basic mechanics of clear, You can connect two sensors and try reading from a human subject.
      ATTENTION! The voltage used for measurement is very low, and then absolutely safe, but considering that the contact surface of the sensors is quite wide, You should not feed the system with mains voltage.
      For tests with human subject, It is preferable to use a laptop, powered only by batteries, so isolated from the network to 220V.
      This precaution is perhaps an excess of zeal, but it's always best to be cautious.
      The original instruments produced in the years 80 (and also the next) worked with rechargeable batteries, and an interlock preventing using them while they were in charge.

  26. BR1 says:

    Fantastic few hours ago I emailed a person to buy a used laptop, a dell running XP that is compatible with HAL and Emotion Meter if I'm not mistaken and I saw that Master V5 you can take on EBay. Other things I think to find them even in shop. As soon as I discharge PC programs and proceed as you suggested. Surely I'll write again for more tips . Hello and thank you again.

  27. BR1 says:

    I had some problems with the PC but I did everything you suggested. HAL is installed and also EmotinMeter. I'm taking my hand with the controls and I also “attached” and actually you can read skin resistance. But I have a problem because with HAL's okay but with no E-Meter. When I start up and connect to the master appear to me the pins but when I click on the configuration window comes out and in addition there are instructions as HAL only a sheet of text. Do you have any advice?

    • Maurizio says:

      Hi BR1.

      If you see skin resistance with HAL are already well under way.

      Unfortunately, the program is only the first stage of development emotion meter, There are still many things to do to make it fully operational.
      At the time, You can only save the configuration with a name, and then reload it whenever you want.
      The only things you need to configure to start are the input slot in the frame of communication, and the zero and gain controls pane. Do not touch each other.
      Entry must be the same slot in which to see the resistance in HAL.
      First of all put a potentiometer instead of electrodes, and make sure you see HAL the same resistance measurement you see with contested electrodes.
      At this point in the emotion meter changes the zero, writing a number, until the second hand moves inside the zone SET.
      If I remember correctly, the number you put zero box is at or close to what you read in HAL.
      Try to change slightly the position of the potentiometer., Watch as you move the needle, and trained to understand how to adjust the zero.
      Now you're ready to move on to human subject.
      To make the field calibration, especially the first few times it is better to be in two, one who takes up the electrodes and one that writes the number to adjust the hour hand.
      Please note that the original instrument was designed to be used in two.
      The subject under observation must hold the electrodes wrapping them completely with hands, but without tightening them, and must not wear rings or other metal objects in contact with electrodes, Why distort the measures.
      The diameter of the electrodes must be such that they can grasp without overlapping the thumb fingers, but not the greatest.
      Once you have adjusted the zero with contested electrodes correctly, If the subject tightens the needle electrodes moderately must go to full scale right, without going over.
      If it is not so, You should adjust the gain to achieve this effect.
      At this point, You can begin to ask the subject to return to moments of his life are especially important, and tell them.
      The pleasant emotions move the needle to the right, those moans to the left.
      By asking the subject to tell the episode multiple times, you have a less visible effect on needle.
      Attention, because not all subjects will move the needle in the same way.
      Some do not move at all, others will move significantly.
      Independently generate emotions is more difficult, because we tend to aim to.

      Take a little’ of evidence, and tell me how it works.


    • Anonymous says:

      Probably what is blocking you is you expect that E-Meter face it all alone.
      But it is not so.

      You must keep started even the HAL.

  28. BR1 says:

    I have tried everything. When I open the pin from E-meter there are values as in HAL. Anyway tried again all, I am very interested.

    • Anonymous says:

      But keep the application active HAL ?
      And the slot Input into the Emotion Meter is the same Slot that you set in the input Pin in the HAL?

      Then you have to adjust Zero (the emotion meter) to get the needle into the SET position
      And also Gain to get a proper motion amplification.

      If you can't write us at
      then we will get in touch with TeamViewer and I'll work.

  29. Maurizio says:

    Livio, Maybe for those who are beginners you could put in the program a button set zero, In addition to setting from slots, What are you saying?
    And maybe, also a box that displays the value that gets the input slot.
    You could do in a pop-up window, callable from menu, to preserve the simplicity of the interface.
    Indeed, you could put in this pop-up all setting, and leave in the main view only the second hand and the zero and gain controls, Maybe as slider.

    As always they're pretty busy, but on the weekend (Saturday night/Sunday morning) I try to do some test, to help BR1.
    But I think he will be able to fix it before I do something.
    Of course it freezes for some small snag easily solved. If you see the numbers in HAL, the hard work is done.
    Maybe you have already heard and you solved…

  30. BR1 says:

    I can work’ now a’ hour and a half Monday through Friday so I will say Tuesday if I managed to do something. Forgive me one thing though, Apart from the various buttons and other things, you couldn't put the needle in place? Thank you

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