Master and Slaves

The modules of the system Theremino

This page is dedicated to comments and ideas for Master and Slave modules

Some users have asked how to apply an external power supply

The easiest solution is to use a USB HUB with the 5 Volt feeder 5 Volt exterior. Some of these hubs can even reach up to 3 Amperes and over. But we recommend that you don't overdo the maximum current, to avoid the risk of burning the delicate contacts of USB ports.

In the event that the system is composed of Master and Slaves could be used adapters visible at the bottom of this page:

Adapters can stop, and food, the entire chain of Slaves or they can be used on a single actuator, interponendoli between Pin of InOut and actuator with a standard extension.

These considerations apply to have more power on pins of InOut and not to feed the master module from the outside.

In all cases we recommend that you do not overdo it with the maximum current and use a power supply protected against short circuits. Also make sure that it does not produce noise and excessive voltage spikes when they connect to the 220 Volts.

In case of actuators with strong inrush current before proceeding to external supply try a capacitor by 4700 UF between + 5V and ground. The capacitor can be soldered to the master, or you can use the pin remained free to access +5 and to ground and connect the capacitor with a small female connector.

If it is really necessary to feed the master PIN from the outside do as shown in this image.


Master led does not turn on

If the led on the Master will not turn on does not fetch system failure USB or in Windows drivers, It is more likely to be the same led.


Write here your questions and recommendations, so it will be useful to all.

  1. Luca says:

    For “blame” by Alessio are here’ I also licking my ears by reading the potential’ of theremino. Beautiful job. I wanted to ask whether there is a tutorial on how to use tabs with step by step instructions to make small experiments to reach something complex. I came on three and a half million bulbs but I can't’ drive the darn thing risk of breaking them all :) Hello Luke

  2. Livio says:

    I copy here a question to Luca who can’ affect many users.

    Hello Livio.
    I was directed to you Alessio IK5PWR.

    Hello, and welcome to Thereminomani.

    I wanted to ask you some info on theremino.
    I have an old Spectrum Analyzer of Marconi who exit the analog X Y plotter. For X the voltage varies from 0 at 10V and Y by 0 to 2 .5V. Saw the need’ Print what I see a video I thought I'd use this card, Obviously with attenuator for the X axis.
    And’ can make this application together with the HAL program or extrapolate a numeric text file for use with excell?

    Certainly! Just adapt the tensions in our ADC inputs ( 0 V to 3.3 V )
    In all cases where parts with a greater range of our adaptation is possible with two or at most three resistors (If you need to measure negative voltages)

    And’ best to avoid any complex solution that includes operational, diodes, and transistors, in order to eliminate adjustments and problems (imperfect calibration of zero, comes with temperature etc.)

    To explore the theme of ADC, in the section of the site “APPLICATIONS” in the descriptive part “MEASURING INSTRUMENTS”, at the bottom of the paragraph you refer for details to the file “Theremino – measuring instruments ", I can't find this file for details, you have to give me some clue plus? I am interested to use the ADC to read voltages ranging from negative voltages to positive by passing through zero.

    Adaptation with resistors is so simple and cases requiring special Slaves are so rare that, probably not utilising the part “precision measurements” very soon, or maybe never, or someone else will as our system is completely “Open”

    I wanted to buy a theremino but I see that some expansion boards are not available, you have to built them or are in production in the short?

    Will be in production within a few months. But you don't need the extra tabs that communicate over serial “Slaves”. You only need a Master because the series new Master 6 Generic, configurable pin with which you can do everything. Start getting a Master's degree and to make friends on the cheap, in the future, If necessary, You can add Master and Slaves at will.

    Thank you and congratulations for your work.
    Salutoni Luca.

    We also thank us, probably calculate a divider you will easily possibly uses LTspice to deal, check and simulate.

    Use resistance values around 100 k and 10 k, in case of negative voltage on the third resistor connect it to +3.3 on the ICSP connector of the master.

    We will review them and send us possibly diagrams and calculations,


  3. Carlo says:

    Salve, I find this very interesting project, I follow the mca on radioactivity network and find it very well done.
    I wanted to know a few things about theremino:

    1) When will SLAVE coupon?
    2) Having to do an automatic control that reads temperature sensors (thermocouples/ntc-ptc), analogue pressure sensors, voltages and currents, resistive sensors, I would need to display them on a screen style datalogger, with specific curves, of each sensor, What can I use to display the data coming out of theremino. Already exists’ a datalogger program with possible chance’ previously set alarm set example.
    I look forward to your explanations
    Thank you in advance


    • Livio says:

      1) Could be ready in a few months, will not start production because there is little demand as the sole master will do the same thing and you spend less. And’ also possible to use multiple masters by multiplying the pins of InOut at will. If you needed the slaves you could ask Ennio some prototype hand assembled (screen printed on PCBS, well welded and reliable as those mounted in car) You can write him at:

      However at the beginning, even with the Suns 6 InOut a Master pin, There are so many things to experience and study to stay engaged for at least one year. I advise you to start with a Master and familiarize yourself with the many possibilities of communication system Theremino, deepen your knowledge on slots (to communicate between processes) and with more than 20 InOut types that you can configure on each Pin.

      2) Currently, there is no software that does exactly what you need but you can do it easily by modifying one of the examples already exist. We start by locating a software similar to the required (as a menu), then you copy the whole project and changing names and inscriptions. Finally you delete what you don't need and add the things you need, If they are simple as you say an expert in DotNet would take a few hours. If sara’ I need to start and then you can edit it and continue them yourself. To traffic in this way serves Visual Studio Express 2008 or 2010 (built with passion and precision by Microsoft, they are high-quality jobs with zero bug free – All our software are written with the 2008, those who use the 2010 must convert them, But enough 30 seconds)

      For small programs we wouldn't even need to bother Visual Studio, It would use Theremino_Script (Download, Open “Simple Examples” / “WebBrowser. vb” and see how it was possible to write an entire WebBrowser – fully functional – in a few lines)

      Another, great possibility is to pass data to MaxMsp (or similar) and from then on his graphics and multimedia utility which are an avalanche, all ready, well documented on the net and usable without writing a single line of code. In this connection see page the parties on Max/MSP, UDP and OSC

      But before you start designing I would recommend you spend a long time doing practical tests with at least: 1 servo control, some LEDs mounted on a female to 3 Pin, 1 potentiometer, light sensors, magnetic sensors, of temperature etc..

      Then I would recommend you also to build some small capacitive buttons (copper vetronite squares on one side with 1×2 cm) and sliders (triangles a little’ long) to explore the possibilities of making keyboards and proportional controls. Then you should download all the software already available, and try to connect them to the Master and sensor learning so’ to configure HAL, PIN and Slot.

      Did this (so if you get back to that after Christmas) you might have on hand the knowledge necessary to make a good project and probably also will open up unexpected possibilities and possible simplifications.

      He continues to write every doubt and new idea, It is not a disorder, Indeed! What we write here is help for everyone.


  4. Augustine says:

    Yesterday I received the master and I immediately started to know him.
    This afternoon I downloaded Hal and I experimented with buttons, led and even servo. now the first thing I want to do is stick a stepper. And then download all the software and start building the robotic arm.
    With Hal is very easy to connect inputs and outputs. Think today I turned on an led controlled by a photocell and even I tried with a thermistor. Of course you see the led do fade if cover or discover the photocell or the thermistor, and even the graphics are fantastic.
    I'm passionate…. Speak to you soon.

    • Livio says:

      Perfect, This is exactly the spirit in which we have worked for years, Thank you!

      Little tips…

      Be careful to use low-power servo and put a capacitor for at least 1000 UF between mass and +5, otherwise the master may lose communication and stop flashing when the servo moves. This happens because some servant consume a lot of power, and all the little ones, during the idea briefly exceed the 500mA USB which provides. It doesn't break anything but gets boring having to press “Recognize” to reset the communication.

      Stepper motors
      For now you can still select the Pin type “Stepper” (We're finishing up the firmware) then, If you really want to use them, you have to use two pin-type DigOut for each engine a pin for the direction and one for the steps of step.

      To drive the stepper will recommend you a Pololu A4988, rediculously, have the microstep, they adjust and fly to 4 wires (The swindles in 6 wires are much worse for reverse emf currents issues)

      The site Theremino
      On the site there is a lot of information and sometimes it is not easy to find, Fortunately there is the button “Search” that works very well, and when you're in the page you can use CTRL-F

      Hello, good Sunday, We await the results of your future research, write them here, so it will be useful to all and welcome among us thereminomani.

  5. Augustine says:

    Today I experimented with a small stepper, dismounted from a broken hard drive. I used the easy driver of sparkfun. I noticed that the pins were not to be out, but it was enough only one RS of easy driver, and this pin was to be or servant or pwm.

    Anyway I've experimented with all kinds of pins, and only on these two guys I had wrap-Scooter (Although whirled as and when he liked him).

    Surely that would be an achievement for developing HAL steppers.

    Now what I want to do is learn more about the script, because as I understand it from the ability to write programs to be run on theremino.

    Until next time.

    • Livio says:

      Move the stepper with onlyL
      The connection with the single wire DIR (direction) should not run engine but only change the direction (If DIR is the bottom goes in one direction if DIR is high should be in the other)

      If the motor turns walking with only DIR is because the yarn STEP left open takes noise.

      To make go step motors you have to connect the wires and STEP two pins configured as DigOut
      but then. as you may have noticed, You can move them with the only HAL – or better – You can move but only manually, one step at a time.

      To test the links with the only HAL you should move with the mouse the PIN that is connected to STEP. Every time you switch from 0 to 1000 the engine must step (step in English)

      Then you should change the mouse PIN status linked to DIR (from 0 to 1000 or from 1000 to 0) and then try to move the PIN of the steps

      Move from software
      To move the motor quickly it takes some additional software, Maybe a script that raises and lowers the yarn STEP in regular speed.

      I made a test script that sends impulses to the slot 1 with adjustable speed download it from here:

      In the ZIP file you will find an executable that works now and the script with which it was made. You can edit it and make a real stepper motor controller.

      In addition to sending the impulses you should stop when you reach your destination… It is not easy and you will not be able to go very fast unless you switch to VbNet true (No script) and use of fast timer with techniques “difficiline”. Hopefully I'll help you do it… might also be useful to other.

      In the future the new PIN type will simplify all of this, but the experience with the script will be useful anyway.

      Theremino system software and scripts
      You wrote “programs to be run on theremino” and you'll probably wait to run the programs in the Master. Many believe this is because with Arduino you do it like this, but the system Theremino is different. Theremino is an InOut for PC and all the software runs on your PC (or on a host generally) This will force to be always online but instead allows writing high quality software, It would be impossible to run on an Arduino.

    • Livio says:

      Looking at the picture you sent me:
      i see the signal wires connected to pins 1 and 2 but I don't see the wire that connects the GND GND Master of stepper driver. This definitely creates all sorts of ailments and “does the engine run as he likes” but most can be dangerous to the health of the Master and the stepper driver.

      The modules thereminici never break, We are going to break the record for an entire year with no return, but we are not asking too much to luck, just a mistake too and it burns everything.

      Until you use the master and the other modules thereminici powering everything from USB, You can rest easy. But add modules and external power supplies can be very dangerous, You must be very careful not to misplace the links and it would also be good connect the USB and external power supply only after doing and double checked all connections.

      Some external power supplies are poorly made and shoot strong links when you turn off and turn on the 220 Volts (by nailing the HAL every time), with these power supplies is very important to always have a good ground connection that holds well connect the GND of each module (ALIM >>> MASTER >>> PC)

      It only takes a moment with the GND wire that touch and not touch at the right time and you fry everything!

      Also links to the stepper motor are delicate if they touch and not touch or go for a short moment you create terrible over that make smoke instantly the stepper driver (This just happened to a user with the same driver to – the Master resisted but I can assure you that resist always)

      Another user was setting the current of stepper Pololu with screwdriver and maybe gave him a scintillina of static electricity… the fact is that the CIP Pololu is instantly BLOWN UP!!!

      – – – – – – –

      I recommend when connecting modules and power supplies NOT THEREMINICI everyone attention, help us to continue with the incredible record of ZERO broken modules.

      Hello everyone and that electrons are with you.

  6. Augustine says:

    Hello Livio
    Thanks for the Info.
    I've already made plans with stepper and easydriver and ardu. But theremino I am realizing that is different and better.
    You're right , I have attached the gnd between master and easydriver. Afternoon I try, and I will try with your file.
    I am very interested in creating automations that run alone without human impulses.
    We see……. I'll keep you informed.
    Hello and good day


    • Livio says:

      Interesting the idea of creating automatisms, seems like an obvious idea but in your words is hiding a lot more. We will wait patiently for your searches, Hello.

  7. Lucignolo says:

    Hello everyone, I just finished the geiger and I must make compliments to those who designed the whole thing. I would like to understand how the system, I read the lessons 1/2 suggested by Livius, someone can indicate where to find the other? example how to light the LEDs with a button or other.
    Hello again and happy holidays

  8. geofaber says:

    Good morning
    Congratulations for the work and the philosophy with which I pursued
    I think theremino can do for me for some experimentation I think so to order one. Was wondering some information, If the answer, as is often the case, not so simple, and requires insights fly over as well.
    The information is these:
    1)to register the files on your pc from the sensors that read I must add this to Hall ?
    2)I can read easily sensors with exit 4-20 mA?
    3)I can read DS18B20 digital temperature sensors (1-wire)
    4) I can read strain gauge type

    Thank you for your attention and above all I hope that you will be able to spread the system

    • Livio says:

      Welcome to thereminici.

      1) HAL serves as a base for read or write the pin of InOut via USB
      The DataLogger is one of many applications that rely on HAL
      It is said that the DataLogger face what you need but might be easy to change it.
      There are also other ways to read data, ThereminoScript, VBNET, VisualBasic, C++, CSharp or Visual programs also block type to be connected with each other, as MaxMsp or similar.
      And finally there is the possibility to give you what you need (or help you do it) from any of the employees, who are becoming increasingly numerous in many fields, by radioactivity to geofonia the recognition of biological signals, etc…

      2) Yes, very easy.
      Feed 4-20mA device as required with the usual 24 Volts (but also 12 Volts should be fine)
      The failure of the device 4-20 connect it to ground through a resistor from 100 ohm resistor 1/4 Watts (the usual normal sized resistors)
      Connect the mass to the mass of the input pins of the Master (Black wire)
      Connect the other side of the resistor to the signal of the input PIN of the Master (Yellow wire)
      Do not connect the third wire he was scat PIN (+5Volts) But let him free.
      Set up your PIN as ADC to 16 Bit
      What you will receive will be
      > 20 Ma = 2Volt > = error (broken device that consumes too)
      20 but = 2 Volts = maximum reading
      4 but = 0.4 Volts = minimum reading
      < 4 mA = <0.4 Volt = errore (filo scollegato o mancanza di alimentazione) Oppure in termini di valori standard thereminici da 0 a 1000 da 607 a 1000 = errore da 121 a 606 = da 4 a 20 mA da 0 a 120 = errore (sono tutti numeri con la virgola per cui la precisione è molto maggiore di quella che sembra qui) 3) Per leggere dispositivi 1-wire si dovrebbe fare un nuovo tipo di pin programmando il firmware o sviluppando un nuovo tipo di slave. Non lo ha fatto nessuno e ci sono molte ottime alternative immediatamente funzionanti, per cui se non lo fai tu hai poche probabilità di poterli usare. 4) Per gli estensimetri ci vuole un pre amplificatore apposito. Dovrebbero esistono già pronti e a buon prezzo quindi difficilmente li progetteremo. Dovresti trovarli da Phidgets o da Pololu o da LadyAda. Controlla che l'uscita sia 0..3.3 Volt e sei sicuro di poterlo usare anche con i nostri PIN (da configuarare come ADC) In genere tutti i sensori Phidgets e simili sono compatibili con i nostri pin. Solo qualcuno potrebbe avere dei problemi, eventualmente chiedi prima a qualcuno di noi.

      • geofaber says:

        Thanks for the answer. Meanwhile, I take a master to do some tests so as to better understand and possibly do more targeted questions. As for my using an application where it suited me very well would have been this where arduino worked fine but the difficulty for me to get it to work (because of my ignorance in programming) was elevated.
        Anyway thanks again, I'll be back definitely later when I find the time to do some tests

        • Livio says:

          Very good, experiment with a Master, potentiometers, led, servo motors and the like is the best way to make friends with the Theremino system.
          I watched a little’ your site (parenthetical Kudos for innovative activity and interesting) and I imagined the kind of applications you might need. If you need any help I am always here. Possibly also the 0125 57290 (from 09 at 19 – including holidays) or by mail to “Engineering at sign theremino dot com”
          Hello Livio

        • Livio says:

          I read with more care the notes on: “hygrothermal behavior of the building envelope” to locate the specific needs regarding the number and type of sensors.

          Such research would benefit from the simplicity of the system Theremino that allows you to:
          – You can add sensors in any number and change the configuration quickly without rewriting the firmware.
          – Easily read all common sensors as: temperature, moisture and dust in the air
          – Have the security of being able to add new sensors on the fly, type in any number and also not foreseen at the beginning.

          As temperature sensors we recommend:
          Lm35 – Farnell 1469236 – about 2 Euro – Does not require calibration and measuring the room temperature within +/-0.25 degrees Celsius and -55 to +150 within +/-0.75 degrees centigrade.

          Sensor "501F" – Farnell 2191831 – about 8 Euro – Does not require calibration and measuring the temperature from -10 to 60 degrees with highest precision. I copy from datasheet: "With an accuracy of ± 0.1 K in a range of 40 k (e. g. 5° C to 45° C), the sensor is more accurate than a class F 0.1 (DIN EN 60751) Platinum sensor. Extended long wires (> 10 m) will not influence the accuracy "

          These sensors are both directly connected to our standard three-wire connectors ( GND/+ 5 volt / Signal )

          How humidity sensors we recommend:
          The great Robot 4030 HIH-Italy:

          This sensor is directly connected to our PIN but you have to pay attention to the order of the links (OUT and + 5 volt are exchanged between them)

          As sensors of dust we recommend:
          Sharp GP2Y1010AU0F which can be found here:

          and also here:
          This sensor is directly connected to our PIN but have 6 terminals that are connected as follows:
          Terminals 6 to our 5 Volts (Red wire)
          Terminals 1 to our 5 Volts (Red wire) through a resistor from 150 ohm resistor
          Terminals 2,3 and 4 our GND (Black wire)
          Terminal 5 through a resistor from 10 Kohm to our signal (Yellow wire)
          (Terminal numbers refer to data sheet found in sites indicated)
          App-notes also say to add a capacitor 220uF between 5 Volts and ground.

          Maybe make it work is more complex than it seems.
          Read data sheet and app-notes on this page:

          Other sensors
          Touring from robot Italy (a little’ Dear), SparkFunk, Phidgets, Ladyada, Pololu and the like are all kinds of sensors, with great prices.

          If you choose the appropriate sensors can be connected directly to 6 each Master and Slave modules adding up to hundreds.

          So be careful to choose models with 5 Volts, be connected directly, No wacky I2C protocols, 1-wire etc… because otherwise you will lose a lot of time to program and you lose the ability to add new sensors in unlimited.

          • geofaber says:

            Thank you very much, I didn't know that dust!, will try it, I keep getting a master in days should… definitely resend

          • geofaber says:

            I'm doing some tests with lm35 temperature sensors, to read the values of tempe guess temperature must vary the values 0 e1000, Is that so? But I couldn't. You have a practical example with reading of lm35?

            • Livio says:

              It should work now.
              The output value of LM35 vale 0 Volts times zero degrees centigrade and 10 MV every degree centigrade.

              Our ADC read a voltage from 0 to 3.3 Volts and convert it into a number from 0 to 1000

              0 Degrees = 0 MV = 0.000 (HAL values from 0 to 1000)
              10 Degrees = 100 MV = 33.333 (HAL values from 0 to 1000)
              100 Degrees = 1 V = 333.333 (HAL values from 0 to 1000)

              Of course then you should use these values properly, Perhaps splitting them for 3.3 to get them in degrees centigrade.

              If you can't write it down for me and I'm writing a small Script that reads Theremino, divide by 3.3 and presents the final value in degrees on a box on screen.

              Maybe you could also change the MAX value in the HAL and send the value already modified to slots but I wouldn't do that to HAL, I would do after…


              If you have to read even sub-zero temperatures the LM35 sensor wiring becomes more complex. Go read the datasheet as do, If you can't write me and I'll help you do it.

  9. Lucignolo says:

    Hello everyone
    I did several tests with a master and a servant and various sensors. I read and reread everything I found.

    Someone I can’ confirm that I began to realize:
    I would check l’ orientation of my solar panel with two photocells, in the laboratory the circuit works, in practice ( Let's try )
    I'm also interested to know how the Panel voltage, for this I ask you,

    Should I measure up to 30V.
    If with a divider down with the 30V at 3V and this is the number 900 in Slot Viewer
    The numbers 300 and 600 I correspond to 1V and 2V ??
    If the question’ …….. don't treat me bad
    I greet you cordially

    • Livio says:

      Entirely accurate to 100%

      By the way is a very interesting idea, You can start with just the photocell and in future add software with every new idea. With a little script you may then also make small movements of evidence, If going to the right voltage drops change direction and in three or four movements are the best location. Or something…

      I would just like to give you some advice for the value of the resistors in the voltage divider, I'd put them to 100 k and 10 k, so pretty high. For two reasons:
      – consume low power consumption (less than a third of but 30 Volts)
      – don't send too much current to the PIC (If the 10 k open or that inadvertently gets disconnected, or be paid poorly and that does not contact well)

      Other advice you're always careful to not send voltage over 3.3 Volts to the input pins, If there is a protection resistor in series with the yellow wire or a divider from 10 k up then the PIC does not break. But you may still stop the USB transmission as soon as one of the pins exceeds 3.5 Volts (same thing can happen if you touch the pins with your hands and give him a small download)

      Last advice: You may also measure the current of the Panel with a small resistor value between the negative mass and Panel. The value should be small to avoid losing power and do not heat the resistor. The maximum voltage at the resistor should be half a volt or less (Although this reduces the accuracy of measurement). So if the maximum current to be measured was, for example, 5 Ampere, could you put a resistor in 0.1 ohm resistor (in practice a piece of wire) and measure up to 0.5 Volts.

      But I recommend this “current measurement” Add a 10 k resistor in series with the yellow wire that goes to the input pins of the Master so if the resistor to 0.1 ohm seceding the current would be the same minimum and don't break anything. A 10 k resistor in series with the input pin does not lose tension and calculations you can pretend it doesn't exist, only serves as protection.

      • Lucignolo says:

        Livio thank you advice
        I had also expected the current control but not the resistor in series.
        With regard to the software for me and’ tabu, I have no idea where to start.
        Hello and thanks again

        • Livio says:

          Well, well, begins to make friends with simple reactions that can be achieved with only HAL. Then, When you need it, you will also learn to do some script.

  10. Lucignolo says:

    Hello Livio
    I beg to riscocciarti,
    MI and’ arrived the dust sensor type GP2Y1010AU0F, I downloaded all I could find to understand how, but I find myself with the uncertainties.
    1° E’ right that warms slightly when and’ in function
    2° Is used as’ or there should be a CAP
    3° L’ air must pass through the center hole, or can I fix the sensor onto a plane

    I connected the wires as you explained on an answer

    Hello and thanks in advance

    • Livio says:

      Other than annoy, you've done very well and I would not have done something wrong I.

      Should not heat, I read from the data sheet that consumes less than 20 mA, then must remain cold cream, I sure hope that there is a problem and that has not passed too much current burning something.

      The instructions explained in the answer are right but not link it more if you didn't check well all.

      Read carefully the whole section and also the DataSheet and AppNotes sensor page:

      If you can't find link errors try connecting with a current limiting resistor from 47 ohms in series with the Red wire that carries the 5 Volts from Theremino, This means making mistakes the maximum current would 100 but it is difficult to burn anything.

      Before connecting it put a meter in series with the Red wire (switched direct current full scale of one ampere about)
      Then colleagues and measure for the current, According to the data sheet, should be about 20 mA
      Finally measure for a short time and if the current exceeds the 50 but there's definitely a mistake

      I've never tried one and I don't have one in the lab to make comparisons so everything is possible, also that there is an error in the data sheet that is done quite badly.

      Doubts and random thoughts
      Datasheet explains that the hole enters the air, so it must stay open.
      You put the 10 k resistor in series with the yellow wire?
      You may have wrong and “seemed to warm up” but not warmed?

      Let me know and if you can't give me a call at 0125 57290

    • Livio says:

      The app-notes (on page 4) He says that it takes a resistor from 150 ohm between pin 1 and the + 5Volts

      Instead in other schemas published by sharp there seems to be an internal resistor in series with the LEDs and preceding pin 2.
      (as in the diagram copied here: )

      However I would add a resistor from 150 ohm in series to pin 1

      In app-notes also say to add a capacitor to 220 UF tr pin 1 and 2
      and they also say that you have to turn off and turn on the led periodically.

      The switch periodically seems really weird
      and should serve only to diminish consumption,
      but the handout is very confused about these things.

      If I'm wrong I'll figure out these things I apologize so much and I'll send you something in return.


      • Lucignolo says:

        Hello Livio
        Meanwhile, thanks for the suggestions, the links I had detected by sensors and not your response AppNotes.

        I mounted a 150 ohm in series to pin 1, in series with the signal pin I had already mounted a 10Kohm.
        The capacitor from 220mF I mounted between the 5V. and the mass and not on pin 1
        The pins 2-3-4 I have connected to ground

        With a resistor in series with the 5V. from 47ohm as you suggested the absorption and’ 18,2 but the sensor after 1 power now remains at room temperature while first after ten minutes was slightly warm

        Now beacon’ some trial
        again thank you and Hello

        • Livio says:

          Well now the absorption is right and the resistor from 47 ohm you can delete it, It was just a safety and could create problems.

          The real difference was the resistor from 150 ohm in series to pin 1, without this resistor the led was lit with a very high current and may have suffered (my fault so I'll help you fix it or I'll buy a new sensor and I'll keep the one) I think you will have to open it and change the led.

          Instead what they write on the pin 3 It's really weird if you can't get it going in the next few days I'll find a sensor and how do.
          Where did you get and how much time they put in online order form?

          • Lucignolo says:

            I purchased it from Robot Italy priced at 22.19 € including shipping costs about 10 €.
            Comes with the connector that you want to achieve, sold separately
            MI and’ been delivered after 3 days.

            I quickly found the problem of connection, failed to create the connector for lack of equipment, then I soldered the wires directly on pins, with a soldering iron 12V.
            I covered the pin with heat shrink ( No heat it up ) After I rolled up the wires and then the sleeve slips off

            To replace the sensor as you proposed is not an option either, continue with the aid and demonstrating

            • Livio says:

              Damn, now on paypal there will be a maximum 10 Euro and make a transfer is an awkward and slow operation. But as soon as someone does the next donation I buy one and then I will help better. In the meantime, let's see if you work without too many complications.
              It seems real, easy to open it to check the LED ?
              Has of vines ?

  11. MQC says:

    First of all congratulations for your project, It is really rare to find, particularly in Italy, something so well made and documented.
    I made my first master, and it worked perfectly on the first try (among other things I've redone it in Proteus Isis/Ares, I know best for professional reasons, redoing the routing, bringing the Quartz to 16 and using a USB mini-B connector – If it concerned have brd and sch are available!). I implemented the FW of the master and the HAL (is still to be tested) the driver for ADXL345 with i2c, and wish I could do the same on the slave… but I can't find the source of the slave, There's no need to hex (It is a choice, an oversight or am I not find them?)
    Again congratulations to all for a job well!

    • Livio says:

      Urka, What a surprise!
      A new contributor, and who knows even schedule! I welcome you, on behalf of the entire community thereminica. You're the first brave who takes the trouble to open the software of HAL. Ask us what you need and you will have our full support. For now here's your servant firmware download:

      You were right, the project was missing and there were also errors in the text (He was referring in part to “Servant” and partly to the “Master”)

      Firmware Changes / HAL / Protocol
      Add a new type of pin (especially an I2C) It's not easy. You will need to make many variations. I recommend the latest version of HAL (What time is the 3.6) The Protocol can be found here:

      We had already started to prepare something, but there are difficult problems to be solved (for example how to pair two SDA and SCL pins in one type in application HAL) And, even worse, Once the data is in the HAL are good for nothing. I don't know how to pass structured data in slots and without the slots all the simplicity of the system Theremino you lose. It won't be easy… many, Happy birthday.

      Because ADXL345?
      The ADXL345 is close relative of ADXL335, connectable directly without I2C and which costs slightly less. But the problem is another, both the 345 that the 335 have a noise exaggerated by 300 UV/sqHz, against the 50 UV/sqHz of LIS344 we recommend that you connect without I2C.

      Because I2C?
      Honor your courage but why bother with the I2C? For all sensors there are analogue versions that cost less and are directly linkable without much trouble. I2C was made by Philips, to make ten centimeters in TVs and can't stand long cables and disturbance. (see Arduino literature about problems with I2C).

      Don't forget the PinType Stepper, Instead?
      Control stepper motors is important, We'd also get the CNC… think I'm going to go through parallel cutter (horror!)

      Call me if you need urgent information:
      Skype: livio_enrico
      mail: Engineering at sign theremino dot com
      Tel: 0125 57290
      from 09 at 19 including holidays

  12. MQC says:

    Hello and thank you very much for availability!
    Yes, I know the limits of i2c… I wanted to test the behavior of Theremino (and sponsor) with an application that currently uses the ADXL345 to make monitoring microseismic standards; originally we used two cooperative 32MX795F512L on a standalone board, one to deal with the sensors and one to do ' reasonings’ (hanning window, FFT, etc).
    As a first step I thought of ' cheating '… treating the i2c transparently; the pin is “type” Adxl345, and the Protocol transitions 6 neutral bytes '’ (with a few changes compared to a 16 bit input, playing with UsbBytesCount). The interview with accelerometers obviously we think the pic in autonomy… and interpretation of data the application that opens the slot.
    Next step I thought of the true generic pin i2c… but actually it is a slaughterhouse. (I have something in the drawer that I could use, but I don't know if it's worth it, better to start from scratch – a kind of ' custom marshaling’ commands and were using more than one slot as tunnel? MAH.).
    The PinType Stepper intrigues me too much! I too have a small CNC with on a Kress, I'm checking with EMC2 (Linuxcnc) parallel Street; two projects in the pipeline for a lifetime (mechanics almost ok, everything else no) are the fourth axis and the extruder FDM repstrap style, for which there would also be a good test bench! Unfortunately, time is running out and the work ahead…
    I will be definitely in touch! (RSS – Unfortunately or fortunately I am twenty years of C++ programming in industrial and automotive… so the VB I understand a little’ alien…
    PS2 – My first master: :-)
    Hello and see you soon!

    • Livio says:

      You a little’ extrusions I myself sooner or later, I was hoping you would long for PinType Stepper. It will mean that we will do it together…

      You don't have to use VBnet, There is also the version of HAL in c #.

      Your master is cute, I'm glad you used a face alone but I like little yellow capacitors. Ceramics by 10 UF are nicer, rediculously, they are small and do not have polarity problems.

      • MQC says:

        I'll tell you, If it helps the cause to deal with before the steppers do I convert even willingly (thought to have landed at Theremino looking for info on Gamma spectrometry… While I was restoring a successful FH40T, the complete procedure will soon be on my site. [Too little time and too many interesting things…!])

        [In fact I am using the C # version… but I know it's rightly not recommended for performance reasons…]

        The tantalum… true… but I used things I already had at home (over the years I have accumulated so many components that I feel guilty to be buying even if not quite indispensable… :) ) – in fact they are also too big, I predicted those ceramics (you know what a mess welded under these, I had to use the hot air station, madness).

    • Livio says:

      Maybe you missed the sentence on noise accelerometers.
      I suggest you use the LIS344 that links without I2C that has a sound six times lower than 345 :
      If you want to exaggerate put 8 or 16 in parallel on the same PCB and make noise media coming to a noise almost by Geophones, but spending very little and with bandwidth up to scratch.
      The average hardware is fine as the LIS344 have resistive outputs which can be put in parallel. Do something in I2C, and then to average in software would result in a workload and an exaggerated amount of data to be sent.

  13. Lucignolo says:

    I have a problem with the Theremino Master.
    Use a usb cable 10 meters to connect the master to your pc, always used with XP on three PCs-Vista-Win7 on two laptops, but on their phone with Win7 I from device not recognized. If I connect other devices work, only with the master does not go, I have three.
    I tried with other two shorter cables and the master work

    In Device Manager with the offending cable does not give me no signal yellow/red, tells me Unknown Device and going to properties tells me that the driver is missing, I try to update it but report it’ updated
    With other cables I from the written Theremino and everything works

    Someone happened, just out of curiosity, What did he do? Gearshift cable or pc?
    thanks and regards

    • Livio says:

      The USB specification says that the cables must be long 3-5 meters. Usually you also get to 10 or 15 meters but if the driver of the PC can't give enough current, the cable capacitance distorts too the signal.

      Evidently your “fixed with Win7” has the USB driver that does not support cables from 10 meters. Maybe you could try a USB cable with lower capacity (You can measure it with an ordinary tester between one of the threads and signal mass id) The best would be a twisted and shielded to minimize the capacity (but being without shielding would be disturbed and would disturb neighboring devices too easily)

      You might try changing USB connector. There is a slight chance that your PC they used different drivers for the USB ports front and rear.

      Una buona soluzione, try it with little expense, would interpose between the PC and the cable from 10 m a USB HUB. Hubs, especially if cheap, don't go much for the slim with current limitation and in all probability bear a cable from 10 meters. Instead some PCs, especially if big brands like Sony, tend to be very picky with the limitations of current (also to limit the noise generated by cable to radio communications). Sometimes these very PC “cool” turn off the USB voltage as soon as they see an abnormal consumption, due to the inspiration of a single Servomotor. Instead of normal PCs and Notebooks bear four servant of Theremino RobotArm, and they would tolerate even more smoothly.

      The cleanest solution would be the serial line of the system Theremino (a Master close to your PC and one or more Slaves close to sensors). The serial line (two-core plus screen) can be hundreds of metres long. Tables for transmission speeds and distances, on this page:

  14. Livio says:

    Francis asked how to measure voltage and current of the LEDs (for school experiments on Planck's constant). Here's a simple diagram:

    Using PIN 3,4,5 and 6 because they have a lower leakage current.

    Circuit and calculations are valid also for drawing voltage/current curves of diodes and transistors.

    Voltage and current on the led (or a diode)
    Volts = P6-Value * 3.3 / 1000
    Microampere = (P5-Value – P6-Value) * 3.3 / 10
    With "Value" means the numbers measured by HAL (numbers from 0 to 1000 with decimals)

    Four lines with Theremino scripts can facilitate calculations and apply directly the values, in volts and Microamps, on two text boxes. Control of PWM driving is done manually with a cursor.
    Theremino Scripts you download from here:
    And the sample is here:

    And here is the simulation LtSpice:

  15. Livio says:

    Gianluca asked:

    Good morning ,I need an information. I have some experience with arduino, but I'm new to the use of theremino. (Usually in my career I have incoming data and outgoing values to be read). I call for help figuring out how you can create a simple application with theremino, in order to be able to engage in more complex applications in the future.
    The application is as follows:
    I have a temperature sensor input and output led. When the temperature exceeds 31 degrees, I wish they would turn on the led.
    I downloaded all the software on the site and I master module and cables, led and theremino sensors.
    I would like to know what software to use to write this simple application and how to interface with components. (Maybe an example of reference to then realize more complex applications)

    To do what you say you do not need to write some software.

    1) Connect the temperature sensor to pin 1 of the Master
    But it must be a sensor, I2C ones are no good.
    I'll recommend to use a LM35 that cheap and easy to connect. For recommended sensors and how to link them here:

    2) Launch application HAL that you download from here:

    3) With HAL imposed Pin1 as Adc16 and controls with the oscilloscope of HAL, the sensor works well.

    4) Connect a led directly to Pin2 (and without resistor) as explained here:

    5) Always in the HAL imposed Pin2 as DigOut (If you want the led on off) or as Pwm16 (If you want the led adjustable)

    6) Always in the HAL selections Pin2 and imposed the same slot temperature sensor (probably the slot 1)
    (in this way the incoming value sensor slot goes to regulate led)

    7) Always in the HAL selections Pin2 and regulate the MinValue and MaxValue in order to turn on the led when the temperature exceeds the desired level.

    8) If MinValue and MaxValue are equal to each other get a release threshold, If you set several get a proportional area and you can (for example,) turn on the led from zero to maximum in the temperature range you prefer. Same thing if instead of led colleagues one servo or other.

    9) If MinValue is greater than MaxValue so exit operates in reverse.

    In the future to do more complex operations would be better to write four lines of Theremino Script or learn to use VbNet with VisualStudio, It installs itself as explained here:

    In the samples folder of Theremino Scripts are small programs that are a little’ of all, including, for example the TempMeter presenting the LM35 temperature on a big screen as you can see in this video:

  16. Lucignolo says:

    Hello everyone, I'm doing some tests with the Geiger and should I open six programs Theremino, already did but after few hours 6/8 Sometimes a day disconnects Hal, up to four programs hold.
    Wonder and’ can connect the usual two Master serial line using two PCs, or connect the two Master usb pc.
    I can't hang up one other cable because no pass
    thanks and regards

    • Livio says:

      You can't split the serial or USB.
      It would seem that the CPU reaches the limit, What is the average CPU consumption?
      Did you try to minimize all applications and especially the HAL, in order to reduce CPU consumption?
      Have you tried to reduce the frequency of data upload (If you're sending to a site)?

      Explain to me a little’ better the situation?
      At the end of the serial line what's, How many geiger there are?
      There are mica external power supplies or ground connections?
      You're probably going through the same pipe 220?
      I ask these things because sometimes the gaps are due to disturbances on the serial line.

      If you don't solve it I'm thinking of a drastic solution, a HAL that reconnects alone, but you have to give me a try:
      When you disconnect, just press the button “You acknowledge” to resume?
      Or do you have to disconnect and reconnect the USB?

  17. Livio says:

    Francis wrote an email asking:
    Hello I would ask for help in understanding an information about theremino. I would like to know whether the module can be connected to the COM1 serial port of PC. And if possible , having already a serial adapter 485 balanced – use the 485 . Use a temperature probe to Platinum and caomando circuit motor output I . And with arduino 485 could not be connected and the movement is never fluid . I would like to see with theremino and with the serial 485 the speed can be greater , also to read audio from a microphone for example to issue commands , for example, to disable and enable clapping.
    Thanks in advance and greetings

    The serial of the Master module is not used to communicate with PC, but only to link Slave expansion modules. Communication with the PC is done via USB, and it is very fast.

    Let us take as an example the case of temperature and engines:
    With Theremino a temperature is read and little more than a millisecond later, the measure is already in the software, that sends it immediately to the engine. It is a communication rate at least 10 or 20 times greater than the amount you need. With Theremino you could move even dozens of independent motors and would all be equally fluids.

    As a serial 485 you couldn't communicate faster, Indeed it would be slower. The problem is not so much the serial communication speed (the kilo baud) but the number of conversions that data must be. And whenever data is passed from one processor to another, the stages of reading and conversion cause some delay.

    I'll give an example with Arduino:
    (1) The temperature sensor signal, is read from the Arduino microcontroller, through an ADC.
    (2) The digital value into serial, and sent from micro to a second chip, reading serial data, and transforms them into USB data.
    (3) The Arduino serial Chip sends data via USB.
    (4) A virtual driver on your PC, pretends to be a serial port, but reads data USB.
    (5) The virtual driver brings together the bits in a number, and sends it to your PC's processor.
    (6) The PC's processor reads the data, as though it came from a serial port, and finally has the value.

    This is only half the “snakes and ladders”, making the data on an Arduino. To move the motor, the data should still follow all six steps, on the contrary.

    With Theremino there are two advantages:
    (1) You are travelling to 12 Mega bits, against the 38 (or maximum 115) Kilo bits, the virtual serial Arduino (then a speed from 100 to 300 times greater)
    (2) The hit count is reduced. Skip intermediate serial converters. The micro system Theremino speaks directly with the processor in your PC.

  18. Lucignolo says:

    Hello I ask a confirmation if I understand correctly the problem:
    I made a Slave and a Master with four and automatism work almost to perfection, Let me explain : the Master and one Slave is near my pc while the other three slaves are at a distance of about 5meters
    In the Master and Slave are inserted in the first 10 LEDs that indicate the conditions/positions of parts of the automation, in theory you can turn on all it has not’ never happened
    It happened instead when flared up four LEDs often sconnetteva Hal ( not always anyway)
    Each led diode I added a BC547 with the base attached to the signal pin, the emitter and the collector to the diode led through a resistor and I fed all the diodes with external 12v
    Are several days running
    It was too much absorption of LEDs that I sconnetteva Hal?
    Thank you

    • Livio says:

      It would be better to feed them directly with the signals of the pins. To maintain low total consumption, It would use highly efficient led (for example the Greens from 20000 MCD) and add a resistor in series with each led. With resistors 1000 ohm resistor, the LEDs good are already a great light, and you can turn on even 100, without external power supplies.

      If you connect a transistor on the signal, You must insert a resistor from 10 K, between SIGNAL and BASE, otherwise the transistor current overuse and might even break.

      The new HAL will reconnect alone. We have always been reluctant to add this feature because it would be better to understand the problems and solve them. Mind having around systems that you disconnect and reconnect continuously.

  19. Emilio says:

    Hello Livio, There is a fairly simple way to get through an output pin voltage pulse master (3,3 V should be fine) by duration 2 Ms, with adjustable frequency between 1 and 10 Hz? Thank you.

    • Livio says:

      Pin has been set as DigOut and be careful about which Slots usa (We do realize that both the Slot “1”)

      Write software that:
      – writes 1000 the Slot 1
      – waits 2 mS
      – writes zeros in the Slot 1
      – expects from 100 to 1000 mS
      – does a Sleep(1) to avoid consuming the 100% of CPU
      (in Theremino Automation you write “Wait Seconds 0.001”)
      – repeats the loop

      Writing it in VbNet, with threads and more sophisticated techniques, You may get very accurately in a timely. Or you could write it with Theremino Script…

      But our advice is to use the simple Theremino Automation Language. Knowing use will allow you to do many interesting things, and to write simple loop like this, in an instant:

      Here are the four lines to write to Theremino Automation

      Slot(1) = 1000
      Wait Seconds 0.002
      Slot(1) = 0
      Wait Seconds 1

      To have the 10 Hz write “Wait Seconds 0.1”
      You don't even need an instruction to repeat the cycle, because Automation at end of program, He repeats himself from the beginning.

      If you can't write us at or call us at 0125 57290

    • Livio says:

      Here's a second example, with selectable frequency 1, 2, 5 or 10 Hz.

      We extended the pulse time from 2 to 5 mS, because the USB travel at most 1000 FPS, So what, time from 2 Ms would be the limit of its possibilities.

      If it is not essential to have short pulses, It would be advisable to stretch them up to 10 mS.

      To get precise pulses, also, be careful about that in ' exchange rate is set at most HAL. And, always to maximize the frequency of Exchange, It is good that there are no slaves.

      ‘ ———————————————–
      ‘ Pulse generator with selectable frequency
      ‘ ———————————————–

      ‘ Keyboard keys are used to select the frequency

      Key 1 GoTo 1 ‘ Press key 1 for 1 Hz
      Key 2 GoTo 2 ‘ Press key 2 for 2 Hz
      Key 3 GoTo 3 ‘ Press key 3 for 5 Hz
      Key 4 GoTo 4 ‘ Press key 3 for 10 Hz

      Speed 9 ‘ Set the maximum execution speed

      Label 1
      Slot(1) = 1000
      Wait Seconds 0.005
      Slot(1) = 0
      Wait Seconds 0.995
      GoTo 1

      Label 2
      Slot(1) = 1000
      Wait Seconds 0.005
      Slot(1) = 0
      Wait Seconds 0.495
      GoTo 2

      Label 3
      Slot(1) = 1000
      Wait Seconds 0.005
      Slot(1) = 0
      Wait Seconds 0.195
      GoTo 3

      Label 4
      Slot(1) = 1000
      Wait Seconds 0.005
      Slot(1) = 0
      Wait Seconds 0.095
      GoTo 4

      • Emilio says:

        Thanks for the help and the availability. However, the length of 2 Ms pulses is quite imperative. For more, I have to say that the solution that you propose I generates, for some reason I don't understand, very long pulses, the order of 100 Ms, Despite that the communication travels to 600-700 FPS. In any case, given the need for short pulses, I opted for the solution of using the impulses generated by the output pin as a trigger for a monostable multivibrator made with a 555 (Because maybe he reads, I must admit that I suggested a friend). In this way, use the Theremino_Automation to adjust the distance between pulses, and switching resistor to adjust the duration of the pulses themselves. Hello.

        • Livio says:

          I think a good solution (If the pulses should be from 2 Ms accurate).

          But concerning the very long pulses do not understand, with this method I have experienced myself impulses of 5 Ms to load the shift register relay Switcher, and they always worked fine:

          It happens that sometimes are long 4 Ms and sometimes even 8 mS (or at best could be 16 MS Windows scheduler that is time). But 100 Ms it seems impossible.

          To improve the accuracy of the scheduler to 1 or 2 mS, in the program that controls the relay Switcher there is a function that requires the Scheduler to work more frequently. The program is called “ReleDriverV6. vb” (examples of Theremino Script) and functions named “timebeginperiod(1)” to start, and “timeendperiod function(1)”, to put things in place, before terminating the program.

          However, your solution is perfect, I couldn't have picked better.

  20. f@ber says:

    Hello Livio, just received from Thereminostore two Master DIL V4, I soon got round the behavior. The first tests summary, made with a servant, don't seem to highlight issues, but it puzzles me is the fact that, for both master, the led is always lit intermittently. This behavior is normal? Thank you.

  21. luciano says:

    Hello Livio,You can use theremino master to interface your sensors to the home automation system Domoticz + Raspberry pi 2?

    Thank you

    • Livio says:

      And’ definitely possible but you have to know how to do it. That is, you have to be an expert in Domoticz and knowing how to write the necessary inside DomoticZ to connect with our slots. We are not experts in that system, so we can't give any help.

      One thing is for sure, Theremino is always in need of a real PC with Windows. So instead of a Raspberry (extremely slow) You should be using a quad-core tablet with Windows 10, like those who will soon be for sale here:

      Soon there will also be a special tablet (called “Flat PC”), It is basically an quad-core tablet, with Windows 10, but without battery and touch screen. This model will cost more or less like a Raspberry, Despite having an output 10 times greater, WiFi, Bluetooth, HDMI, etc.. And in addition will have 10 times more memory than a Raspberry (all DDR3), more cache memory and much more place in static Hard Disk.

      All of these benefits in a Raspberry must be purchased separately (whenever possible install them) It would make it full of wires, uncomfortable and three times more expensive than a tablet.

      Finally the tablets I am talking about are the sole (Hence the name Flat-PC), undertake less volume than a Raspberry and consume only 2.2 Watts that are about half the consumption of a Raspberry.

  22. cristiano says:

    Hello, What is the difference between this And this ?
    Apart from the 9 euros of difference.

  23. Livio says:

    A vocational electronics teacher asked us if it would make sense to buy a Theremino Master, for each of the 30 women in a classroom. And what differences there would be compared to the Arduino.

    To save money you could buy a single Theremino Master and try boys ' applications on a single PC (which is usually already in the classroom), with a total expenditure of 10 Euro. But they certainly have a Theremino human resources Master, to use at home, invoglierebbe the boys to do experiments and learn more.

    The differences compared to the Arduino are as follows:
    – With Theremino you learn to program your PC, with the most important programming languages: Basic, CSharp, CPP, Phyton, etc… Instead with Arduino you learn to program the “Sketch”, only applicable to the Arduino modules.
    – For the future of children is more important than knowing how to program a PC, that one “Sketch” Arduino.
    – With Theremino every boy should have his own PC (or a tablet with Windows). But even with Arduino every guy should have his own PC, otherwise what would program the Sketch?
    – Thirty “Arduino Two” they would cost about 1300 Euro, While thirty “Theremino Master V4” could cost less than 250 Euro.

    Probably, for 30 pieces, thereminostore could make a further discount.
    Contacts to get the rebate are here:
    The masters are here:
    PCs are here:

  24. vizdor says:

    which one should I use?
    PIC24F16KA101-E/P , PIC24F16KA101-I/P , PIC24F16KA101-E/MQ , PIC24F16KA101T-I/MQ, PIC24F16KA101-E/SO ,
    PIC24F16KA101-I/SS (__

    Best regards!

    • Livio says:

      Schematics and downloaddable projects (with the partlists) are in this page:

      Here I extract the relevant informations for you:
      – For Theremino Slave Modules: PIC24F16KA101-I/SO
      – For Theremino Master: PIC24FJ64GB002-I/SP

      The final part “SO” means “SOIC case”
      and the “SP” means “DualInLine plastic case”

  25. Livio says:

    Joseph wrote us asking:
    I can't find on the website the firmware update procedure, I possess a Master dil-v4 but would like to upgrade the firmware to version v5, I've already downloaded, to communicate with the’ ADC24-v2. Can you please name me the procedure?

    The V5 firmware HEX file you download from here:

    This page explains how to PIC programming

    You need a PIC programmer, better if a PicKit2 (not PicKit3 that is harder to use) and a lot of patience, to learn how to use the PicKit2_Programmer application

    All this is valid if you have a lot of time and want to learn how to program the PIC
    otherwise I suggest you send it to thereminostore and I riprogrammeranno without charge.

    Or you could buy a PIC programmed with version 5 about thereminostore
    so this saves postage of double travel back and forth to the Master.


  26. Livio says:

    Roberto wrote us asking:
    After giving power to the Master module V5, via usb port, but without having initialized with HAL, What configuration takes the default Pin 7?

    All pins, not only the 7, should be placed in output and emit zero voltage.

    But this happens only a few hundred milliseconds, because as soon as you Master its voltage outputs are all open.

    In the first few milliseconds the PIC isn't still alive so we cannot do anything about it.

    So if it is essential that an actuator is zero even in the first few moments and if this actuator has an input or high impedance Mosfet or transistor PNP or optocoupler who works in reverse, then you must take appropriate measures.

    In some cases you will need to review the driving circuit of actuator.
    In many cases it may be enough to add a pull-down resistor.
    In many cases a pull-down resistor 10 k should be fine.

    Actuators driven with an NPN transistor and resistor (from 1 k or 10 k) traveling from the Master and pilot Pin the base of the transistor, they wouldn't have these problems.

  27. Joseph says:

    Good morning, I wanted to ask if you can get a Master's degree from the Labview program.
    What are the libraries and where you can download?

    • Livio says:

      It would be theoretically possible if someone of LabView make the plugins needed. We do not use LabView, but the tools of the system Theremino, Why don't we know it. Probably for a LabView expert would be easy, try to write to them.

      But it is important that you realise what to do. If they embark on the adventure to communicate directly with the Master end up more or less in a few years. A little’ because they are not familiar with the Master and the protocols thereto, and some’ because there are twenty types of pins, one more difficult than the other to handle via USB.

      If someone wants to make a PlugIn for LabView shall not communicate with the Master but with slots, extremely easier because only simple normalized numbers travel slots and all the difficulties to communicate with the hardware were resolved by Theremino HAL.

  28. Angel says:

    How come the Theremino-script I worked only sometimes and then me getting this error?
    “EXCEPTION IS NOT HANDLED BY THE APPLICATION” and then goes out…I don't know how to attach pictures if not send a screen… I'm trying to figure out how everything works but it's all a bit fragmented learning, There are basics throughout the site in various pages… so I'm trying to study the scripts, but I can't find a list of all the instructions and commands of theremino…

    • Livio says:

      Theremino the system is not a tab as Arduino with your instructions, but it is an entire ecosystem of applications and hardware modules. Applications are more than fifty, and any
      application has its own instructions and must be understood apart from all the rest.

      There are no instructions and commands of the “theremino”, I don't even know what it is “the theremino”, Perhaps you mean the Master module, in this case there are no “instructions” but it should be “configured” with HAL application.

      I think you will need to help you a bit’ at the beginning. I have sent you an email with your phone number, Let us be.

      If possible you should install TeamViewer as well I'll help you put everything in place and figure out why there is that error. If you don't know what TeamViewer call us and we will work together.

  29. Angel says:

    Thanks Livio, your openness is really amazing! but I don't want to take too …However that problem I solved by deleting the old directory and downloading another copy of the program. Focusing my goals and the first steps to do, What interests me now is create programs from the graphics:form,controls,etc…I understand that the Theremino Script, can do it, but from code, so much more cumbersome, so I would use vb . You have provided the sources of the programs created ,But what is the root file to be opened with visual studio 8 Express, which then encompassed all other files? I mean it should be a file “project” fair? all the ones I tried to open the form and not the graphics…but only parts of the code,can you help me?Thank you

    • Livio says:

      Parts from the project “Empty App” and open the file “.sln” that means “Solution”.

      But first of all I would recommend using VB2008 which is much lighter of the following versions.

      The recommendations in this chapter are for VisualStudio:
      and in the following chapters.

      Don't worry about disturbing, We're here for. If you have a problem we don't waste too much time, call us and Let's settle this in five minutes.


  30. franco says:

    Hello Livio, to try to start drawing circuits, recommendations Fidocad or EasyEda?
    Hello, Franco

    • Livio says:

      I am not familiar with neither.
      If you just want to make diagrams would be better off using LTSpice, so you can try them.

      If you want to make even your boards consider that Fidocad is not a real editor of PCB.
      So I think it's better EasyEda but perhaps not even he is a real PCB editor, I tried it a moment now and saw strange things.

      We use Eagle, that's fine but it's quite hard to use.

      • franco says:

        For now I don't care about the next step to the PCB, you say that Eagle can be recommended to a neophyte solely for drawing circuit diagrams or better to start with LTSpice?

        • Livio says:

          If you don't think you design PCBS but want to do maybe even schemes to simulate them then LTSpice is best suited.

          If you think you don't even care to simulate them then can fit also Fidocad

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