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  1. Roberto says:

    Good morning, use the master module for controlling step motors. You can call the write slot function with two more silvers making it possible to also change the speed and the acceleration? In this way it would be possible to obtain successive movements by program with different speeds and accelerations.

    • Livio says:

      The speed and acceleration are set sull'HAL are the maximum speed and acceleration. The firmware that is in the Master module uses them as a safety limit and guarantees to never exceed the limits beyond which the motor could lose steps. These two limitations are trying identified for the maximum possible attempts of engines and once set do not have to change them more.

      The software that drives the engine can also run engine at any speed, also pianissimo.

      To move at low speed the software continuously sends new destinations and each destination has shifted slightly over the previous. Usually they send destinations at least ten times per second and is calculated each time the new destination, so as to proceed to the desired engine speed.

      In other words it is like pulling a dog leash. If you make big steps and therefore the destinations are distant from each other, the engine will run after fast. If they are all close, or even all at the same point, then the motor will follow the plan or stops right.

      In this way you can move the motor at any speed and acceleration, gradually variables, without changing the security parameters. And so with the certainty that, whatever you do, the engine never lose footsteps.

      Anyway, even if he wanted, not MaxSpeed ​​may vary the parameters and MaxAcc fluidly. To change those values ​​every time the firmware must stop the engine and restart it. So the engine should be in tears.

  2. Eck says:

    Theremino MCA Qestion For Livio:
    I just have bought a Gamma Spectacular spectrometer GS-USB PRO (theremino adapter) with a second hand low energy probe.
    The setup works ok with the PRA software but not with the Theremino MCA 7.3. It displays the message “no audio signal’ or at best ‘too low a signal’ and turning up the volume on the spectrometer (built in codec) does not help. However, if I switch on “listen to the device’ with the crackling audio signal sound on in the MCA 7.3, all of a sudden – intermittently for longer periods – the message is “signal ok’.

    How can I fix this? I would rather like to use the Theremino MCA with its nice features and interface. Thank you
    Kind regards

    • Livio says:

      It looks like you can’t select the right audio input.

      Have you tried to select, one by one, all the inputs that appear in the bottom box of the “Audio input” panel?

  3. Eck says:

    Thank you Livio, that helped. Now I recorded a first spectrum of Am 241 but it ldoes not look like anything close to the real thing. No filters or equalizers are applied. The main peak is at 29.2 KeV with two smaller peaks at 20.1 and 36.5 KeV. How can I calibrate the MCA display to show a correct picture? The equalizers seem only allow for a 10 KeV correction?
    As I plan to do XRF experiments a correct reading is essential. I ver much would appreciate your help with this. Thank you.

    • Livio says:

      The first rough trimming you don’t have to do with the equalizers, but with:
      – Audio Gain
      – Energy trimmer
      – PMT voltage

  4. Eck says:

    Now I have two peaks and the shape is a little more like it should. If I centre the larger peak onto the 59.6 Am 241 line with the Energy trimmer, the second peak is at 47.7 KeV – out by more than 20 KeV, more than could correct with the equalizer and maybe that distorts other values too?

    • Livio says:

      Probably one of the two peaks is caused by Am 241 at 59.6 Kev. And the other is probably just noise.

      However the strongest (definitely stronger than all the rest) should be 59.6. Just rule him and everything else should be okay.

      You would also need Cesio or Radio to have other references. Without them it is difficult to understand for sure what you are seeing.

      Over time you will understand how to adjust everything, do not be in a hurry, it will take a lot of time and many tests.

  5. Alberto says:

    I do not know if this is the best way but I wanted to note that I used the Theremino also DAA LINUX MINT (19.1) and, through Wine, it works perfectly.

    So Wine has managed to talk the program with the USB sound card driver. The sound card I used is based on the CM6207 Chip, I think it's an older version of the CM6206 discussed by you in the documentation.

    I consider it good news for those looking to use the system “Aliens” and I hope that one day you get to do just turn even the HAL (Mono unfortunately I can not even start it with Wine and everything works right away, HAL is that IotHAL, unless he sees the devices).

  6. Max says:

    Dear Livius,
    I would like to know if there was a pattern to build the base of a coincidence detector for muons, it is not exclusively for “insiders”, in the sense that it is one schema understandable even for someone like me that you want a little’ mechanical and physical but little e.
    Congratulations for your site and the beautiful creations.
    Kind regards

    • Livio says:

      You can get help from Lello, you find on eBay as “maxtheremino”,
      or you can write to

      He can help you in several ways, depending on what you need, and also prepare a kit with all the components to be assembled or even pre-assembled and tested by him.

      Maybe write them and then phone him and evaluated together what you need.

  7. Max says:

    Thank you, now the contact.

  8. Angelo Pietropoli says:

    Hello Livio. Wanting to use a small agricultural rover wheels controlled through my local wireless network, I initially used the new ESP32 modules mounted on the rover, and your software on the hard Theremino Iothal home PC. This procedure has proved to be not suitable because having to work on large surfaces wifi ESP32 module on the rover must disconnect and reconnect to more ripetititori wifi and this result is difficult to manage. With the publication of the application SlotsOverNet I could instead be mounted on the rover a master module with a portable laptop that, always via wifi, easily it remains connected to the fixed PC via precisely SlotsOverNet. Very useful would be for the purpose also the application Theremino WiFi if you do not interfere heavily with wireless communication. So I made this little project and I just wanted to witness the extremely useful application SlotsOverNet, which is moreover stable and reliable, and maybe soon you can develop an application Theremino WiFi can be used simultaneously with other applications.
    Kind regards.
    Angelo Pietropoli

    • Livio says:

      Now the application asks the Wifi access point data five times per second, we could slow it down to once per second, as do all other gauges. But the ratio of five is not a big difference and would disturb the, so it's best to turn it off when not in use.

      If we find a method to query the access point that the disturbance of less'll let you know.

      IotHAL e IotModules
      The next version, I will post in a few days, will be able not to lose connection even when no signal.

  9. Giacomo Rucci says:

    Hello Livio, IOTHAL reading the documentation about the IOT program, We understand that to activate the mode “SoftAp” rather than “Station mode” the IOT is necessary to act through the programming of the same with the ide (changing the parameter of the row IOTMODULE_WIFI_MODE = …). I wanted to ask you if it was possible to adopt, for IOT, which it has the same functionality as the NetModule with which I can pasare from Stadion Mode to SofTap simply placing a pin at power up. Thank you

  10. Enzo says:

    Good morning Livio'm a ham radio operator who is using the app. ThereminoSDR . I also downloaded Theremino logger because I'd like to monitor one of the many radio signals in the VLF .This because I would see in a graph ,over 24 hours, the trend of one of these stations .But this signal not only to monitor the signal itself, but to see the peaks in the case of a flare of the exploding solare.Sapendo the intensity ,after a few minutes from’ evento.Purtroppo I can not log the value of the signal received. I tried in the various functions of the slots ,Theremino the SDR but there are no riuscito.Forse could give me some advice. Thanks Enzo

    • Livio says:

      The SDR application outputs three values ​​that might be useful.
      It copies the instructions:

      Slot 11 – Power of the tuned signal. The signal is typical of S-Meter, with logarithmic scale. The values 0 to 1000 represent approximately the values ​​S0 to S9 + 40.
      Slot 12 – the strongest signal strength, in the visible band of the spectrum analyzer. The power is measured in decibels, with the same scale of decibels visible in the spectrum analyzer window. A value 1000 on the output slot represents the 0 DB (the maximum of the spectrum analyzer scale), while the value zero represents -100 DB.
      Slot 13 – Frequency (in KHz and fractions) the strongest signal, in the visible band of the spectrum analyzer.

      To achieve that the measured values ​​end up in slots 11, 12 and 13 the box you have selected “Enable in out” and set “First slot” with the value "1", in the address box of the application SDR.

      Please note that when you enable the box “Enable in out” you never have to change the values ​​of Slots 1 to 5, because every change would act on tuning, the volume and on the other.

      Probably in your case you are interested in the slot value 11.

      By tuning the frequency of your interest you should see on Slots 11 the strength of its signal. in Slot 11 values ​​from 0 to 1000 represent approximately the values ​​S0 to S9 + 40.

      Before proceeding check it out, with the application SlotViewer, that on Slots 11 there is the value that changes and which corresponds to the level of the tuned station. Verified this will proceed to save the measured value, at regular intervals, with a Logger application.

      If you can not write back.

  11. Roberto says:

    Hello Livio ,
    I mounted the IotModule with your IotHal and I'm trying it with some applications that I created ,fantastic system , with a little imagination you can make him do anything . I have a question , When I program the Arduino IotModule insert name SSID SSID and password and everything is right up until you use them at home , if you happen to use it in another place , I have to reprogram the SSID to use it because of course the details are no longer valid .Stessa logical thing if you use another PC in another location , IotHal is little programs are fast to install , me I can also put on and stick them in an instant any Pc can be active, but for the SSID details every time I have to reprogram the IotModule. Now I wonder if we can put these two parameters directly from IotHal or if there is a way that does not require re-programming with Arduino of these two parameters to be able to update .TI thank for Your answer or advice . Thanks Roberto

    • Livio says:

      We are looking for solutions that could facilitate.
      One question though.
      You already know before you go, the SSID and password of the networks on which you want to connect?

  12. Roberto says:

    Hello Livio, thanks for the reply and as always for the great courtesy and helpfulness , in some cases I already know , other available network control .
    I tried to see around and it seems to me , but correct me if I'm wrong to have found something that perhaps could be a solution but ,I do not know if you can go or not in conflict with your “iotModule.ino ” and in case if necessary to modify this to implement it . The article says that the practice :”This post was created by the need to configure the SSID and password, to which our ESP32 must connect, without changing each time the sketch.
    To do so we will ensure that, if the power module employs more than a set time to connect, then enter into access point mode.
    By connecting to the module we can enter the SSID and password thanks to a html page loaded in the module itself.”
    If there is interest and I can make it through the blog , After your permission I can write link explains how and where to install what libraries to do this ,but if you believe that it is unnecessary or incompatible go this route as said .
    Thanks again for your great availability and courtesy .

    • Livio says:

      Here in the blog write well what you want, if there is something wrong with us we correct it right away.

      With regard to the solution of your problem we're thinking of turning SSID and Password in a list of SSID and Password. So you can set the two or three that you normally use, and then wherever you go you switch it on and it works immediately.

      The access point mode (we call SofTap) already exists in the latest versions that we will publish in a few days. You just press a button to the switch to get it going and be able to program in SofTap.

      • Angel says:

        I renew my congratulations for your incredible work with Theremino system.

        Question , the ESP32 it could not do as phones that have stored passwords and connect themselves to the networks?

  13. Roberto says:

    Ok, Thank you very much, I await the publication to eventually ask questions.

    In the case could affect or be a starting point for a different mode, here is the link I mentioned:

    Thanks as always of great availability

  14. Giuli says:

    Salve, I recently purchased four ESP32s and am very excited, iot modules work perfectly with your application.
    But now I have problems in classes of institutions that I follow.
    Unfortunately, each course has its access to the network and I'm forced to reschedule the ESP32 to get them use to students, I read that you are going to make a list of passwords so that you can easily connect to other networks.
    For me it would be a good solution, When will you publish the new firmware?
    Thanks for your work.

    Ps * I read and tried the solution proposed by Mr. link. Roberto but it's too hard for me.

    • Livio says:

      I imagine that you are the Giuliano with whom I exchanged emails in recent weeks about the PH-meters and speed measurements for chemical reactions.

      Thank you for your message that made me reflect on some topics. Initially I did not understand the phrase “too hard for me”, as go to a web page it seemed easy and convenient, but then I think I understand what you mean, i.e.:

      If you have for example you have four modules:
      1) Turn on the first module and make time out until you go SofTap
      2) Connect Windows to its network
      3) Open your web page and manually enter the SSID and password
      4) Enter the IP address manually in case there was not the DHCP
      5) Repeat this for the other modules
      6) Repeat all over every time you go to school or go home or institution where teaching changes.

      Is that what you mean with “too hard for me” ?
      Write me even if you're Giuliano chemistry professor, so I can warn you by email when we have the news.

      • Giuli says:

        Hello Livio, they Giuliano.
        Exactly how the procedure is too cumbersome, I hope you find an easier solution.
        Thanks and good job.

  15. Joseph says:

    Hello Livio, in these days of epidemic, as you could see there are many makers and FabLab (including the network of international FabLab) They are offering and creating collaborative networks for thinking / invent useful things for the emergency.
    I must say that I feel so many ads but then I do not find practical feedback.
    Eh Nothing…I wanted to know what you think, if you too are we thinking of Theremino, and if you see from your observatory ideas that can be seriously developed to meet the emergencies.

    Thanks again

    • Livio says:

      Hello, We already discarded ozone because they are too toxic to humans. His biggest problem is that after filling an ozone room, in sufficient concentration to eliminate all viruses, then it takes days to get it out from mattresses and blankets. And in those days you can not sleep or I will cough.

      We are designing a device to disinfect rooms (walls, handles, floors, money, objects, beds, thermometers etc ..) by means of ultraviolet, A species of the XENEX (from 120 thousand dollars) but much lighter, Economic and easy to handle.

      This unit will be significantly more powerful than the XENEX, but handles like a vacuum cleaner, and allow (in a familiar and integral overalls person) totally disinfect a hospital room in less than ten minutes.

      Here are some useful references:

      The XENEX from 120 thousand dollars (a sideshow so heavy and awkward that you can not clean under the beds and behind all the parts that are in shadow):

      An example of Ozone generator:

      The page with our Coronavirus projects

  16. Rodolfo says:

    Good morning,
    I am interested in the design of the active antenna and would like to deepen its theoretical aspects.
    I have different material, but I was unable to find a discussion on the matter.
    Could you tell me about the reference literature?
    Thank you, Greetings.

  17. Fulvio says:

    Good morning, by chance I came across the world Theremino and I was pleasantly surprised, GOOD!
    Let's come to my problem, in Theremino CNC when I get to the bottom rightly tells me limit switches (sensors with slots 32) and crashes, i couldn't find anything to unlock it, any key pressed returns the signal, all that remains is to turn off everything and move the trolley by hand.
    Where I'm wrong?
    Thank you again.

    • Livio says:

      Hello, during machining, the limit switch condition should never occur. It only serves to avoid puncturing the table (or similar errors). If it happens during processing you have still ruined the piece so you turn off everything and start from scratch.

      If it happens to you while you are moving with the arrow keys then you could add a button to the limit switch chain in order to temporarily remove the block. But then be careful how you move because if you go wrong you could cause trouble.

      • Fulvio says:

        Thanks for the reply, happens with the arrow keys.
        I thought there was some key combination to unlock the situation, I'll do it with the button.
        Thanks again.

        • Livio says:

          Soon we will publish the version 5.3 which contains many improvements, including the possibility of moving even in end-of-stroke conditions.

          To move (with the keyboard arrows or with the mouse on the drawing) just hold down the SHIFT key.

          Keep an eye on the latest messages at the top right of each page, when we publish a message will appear on the news page.

  18. BR1 says:

    Good morning , about two years ago maybe even more, I downloaded the Emeter program.
    I did everything according to the instructions and there’ I have used quite a lot with good results.
    The problem is that for a few months the computer no longer recognizes the peripheral.
    I bought a new module thinking there was the problem but it still doesn't work.
    I wanted to ask you if by chance (forgive ignorance on the matter) it is not the program that has such a deadline.
    Thanks and good day!

    • Livio says:

      No, absolutely! None of our apps contain any hidden tricks or timed traps.

      If it doesn't work, you're doing something wrong, or Windows is no longer OK, for example,:
      – A few pieces of Windows (maybe the sound card) it no longer works well.
      – There were changes in important parameters, or in the Windows registry
      – You uninstalled some important piece of Windows
      – You have inadvertently changed something in the HAL (the slot 1 it must be ADC16)
      – You have inadvertently changed it “InputSlot” in the app. EmotionMeter (it usually has to be 1)

      Try deleting the whole EmotionMeter folder, re-download it from the site and of course unpack it from the ZIP.

      If you can't write here again and explain better what happens, for example the application opens? And if it opens then what does it do?

      Or call me on Skype like “livio_enrico”

  19. BR1 says:

    Okay I try everything you recommended and then I'll let you know.
    Thank you very much and sorry for the inconvenience, Have a nice day.

    • BR1 says:

      Hello Livio, I am writing to you for fairness but with a little shame.
      After trying everything I thought I'd do the second wise thing from
      do in these cases; check the cable, which is precisely the second thing after the on off button ha ha.
      However changed and now everything is fine.
      Thanks for the help and full speed ahead!

      • Livio says:

        There are USB cables that are made to charge batteries and have only the two power wires and not the two signal wires. Generally they stand out because they are white in color but this is not necessarily the case, they could be any color.

        Maybe this happened in your case, but no shame, it happened to me several times too.

  20. BR1 says:

    You are great. Thanks for the clarification but the cable was really broken.
    Good evening

  21. Giulio says:

    Good morning everyone, I am an old retired chemist and I do not understand anything about electronics but I have built a spectrometer with a concave holographic reticle in reflection that has excellent resolution and sensitivity. The spectrometer is used with theremino spectrometer. Since I have to use it for the analysis of minerals with the Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy technique (LIBS) I would need to synchronize the acquisition of the spectrum in text file format with the Laser pulse. The impulse lasting 10 ns produces an intense flash of light and a noise similar to a burst so it is detectable with a photocell or a microphone whose signal must start the writing of the file, someone is able to help me solve this problem by intervening on the Theremino spectrometer software or on some other devilry ?
    I thank in advance those who want to help me with the realization of this DIY project.

    • Livio says:

      probably it will not be possible to synchronize the Theremino_Spectrometer application because it reads the data from a WebCam and the WebCams take the frames when it seems to them, and yet very distant in time from each other (something like 50 milliseconds from each other).

      Then synchronize with a pulse of suns 10 nS seems to me very difficult. But you could do some tests and exploit the memory effect of CCDs.

      To test I would have to put together something similar to your device but I don't have the knowledge to do it. I would therefore suggest that you speak to our collaborator Marco Catalano and perhaps we will be able to do something useful with him.

      Now I'll call Marco and have him read your message.

  22. Anonymous says:

    Thanks Livio, I can tell you that the laser pulse is about 10 ns. but the formation of the plasma lasts much longer and normally the acquisition of the spectrum must be delayed with respect to the pulse, also to discard the continuous emission of nitrogen that is present at the first stage of plasma formation. It seems to me sufficient to attempt a test.
    The memory effect of the CCD cannot be used because the camera sensor is of the CMOS type

  23. Maurizio says:

    good morning guys.
    I am interested in the topic, for now only at the level of personal knowledge.
    I would like to be included in any developments in the discussion.


    • Livio says:

      Hello, we will include you in the emails.

      • GIULIO says:

        Hello Livio, I read your last post and I like your ideas.
        Meanwhile, I specify that I have spoken of the USB port, but this was my idea, not knowing how it is to interface with theremino.
        I like your idea of ​​using the sound card and a microphone, regarding the CMOS sensor, I can tell you that the laser can work with 1a pulse frequency 10 Hz but the LIBS technique involves a single pulse.
        I welcome Maurizio and I remind you that I am available for any clarification on this analytical technique

        • Livio says:

          We all write here instead of in emails so others can see what we are organizing. In case of having to send files we can use the emails and (If necessary) I will make them visible here too.

          But even better would be to open a forum thread (there is a link at the top of all pages on this site).

        • Maurizio says:

          Hi Giulio.

          As I said, my interest in this subject is solely for personal knowledge.
          I did some research on the Internet, and I saw that at the moment the few test appliances (at least those about which you can find information online) they are all composed of a pair of sensor and very precise reticle.
          In particular, I was intrigued by the use of the ICCD (Intensified Charge Coupled Device), which allows for greater sensitivity, and apparently considered the most suitable for LIBS spectroscopy.
          You are using a CCD or an ICCD for your tests?

  24. Franco says:

    Good morning,
    I recently discovered theremino and I find it really exciting. I am interested in the’ xrf application but unfortunately I note that clicking on the link is Low energy probe.pdf , the page is not found on the server.
    There’ a way to learn more?
    Thanks and congratulations for a chapeau job !

  25. Franco says:

    Thanks Livio.
    I hadn't thought about the fluorescent screen. I'll try’ for sure.
    Changing the subject for a moment, it occurred to me, It’ that by joining a laser source to the Theremino spectrometer you can get a sort of raman ? ……
    Good continuation

  26. Franco says:

    Very useful, Thank you, See you soon !

  27. Franco says:

    Thank you very much,
    Certainly, I hope soon. I want to try to apply your spectrometer to an old dispersion spectrophotometer, in order to have as a source a sort of vfo in the uv vis nir window (which allows a halogen )and try to measure the transmittance individually wave by wave as needed . This is after some tests with a green laser . (Simple pointer )

  28. Luca says:

    Hi I should connect a Type K thermocouple to 2 cables (green and white) to the theremino system to monitor the temperature of a circuit under pressure.
    Can you tell me how to go about links and code as I can't get it to work (I have the master and ADC24 available)

    Thank you very much

    • Livio says:

      If I'm not mistaken Lello has already shown you how to do it. And you should have simplified your project a lot too, increased accuracy and decreased cost of components, using an LM35 sensor which has an accuracy of 0.25 degrees calibrated in the factory.

      If you need more, write another message.

  29. CLAUDIO says:

    Thank you

    • Livio says:

      You have checked in the HAL that the button works well?
      When you press it, it must give 1000
      When you don't press it, it has to give 0
      To achieve this we usually set the Pin as Digin_PU
      and then MaxValue and MinValue are reversed,
      That is, we put MinValue = 1000 e MaxValue = 0
      And then you set it up with: Slot=31

      Also it should be a “button”, so you press it and then release it.

      However ThereminoCNC should never freeze completely, I tried the current version and it doesn't crash even if you hold emergency forever.

      Maybe you are using a very old version of Theremino CNC?

      If you can't write again, then I will send you the phone number by mail
      and we will find out together where the problem lies.

  30. CLAUDIO says:


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