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  1. CLAUDIO says:



  2. CLAUDIO says:


  3. Luigi says:

    Good morning! houn theremino and I just downloaded the program, I admit that I find myself for a moment confused by its configuration, there is someone who could help me? Who can I contact?

    • Livio says:

      Write your questions here.
      Or write to me at engineering at theremino dot com
      So then maybe I could also help you by phone, or Skype or AnyDesk.

      • Luigi says:

        E-mail sent!
        Many thanks in advance!

        • Livio says:

          With Skype's screen sharing, getting it to work was pretty easy.

          For those with similar problems, remember to use “Load config.”, just to start making some sounds and then read the instruction file.

  4. Giacomo says:

    Good evening. I would need information. I have an ESP32 IOTmodule – Picokit V4 which I use to read environmental sensors. The firmware version is 182-1. I feed it with a powerbank to 5 Yes 5000 mAh of the type for mobile phones. The powerbank allows (from what the manufacturer says) charging a mobile phone and recharging it simultaneously. Everything works very well. The only problem I encounter is when charging the powerbank or better, when I unplug the mains charger when the powerbank has recharged. In that moment, what IotHAL (ver. 1.4) it disconnects from the IOTmodule and the writing in red appears (sometimes even in blue) that the module has lost its configuration. I have the impression that, with the disconnection of the mains charger, the powerbanck will restart. But I just need to click on “Recognize” of the IotHAL to restart everything normally. Do you have any idea what could cause the detachment between iotmodule and IotHAL? Some software or hardware adjustments are needed? Thank you

    • Livio says:

      When the battery charger is disconnected, the PowerBank you are using makes internal switches and then interrupts for an instant the 5 output volts.

      Not all power banks do this “defect”, you might see if you find one that doesn't cut the output voltage.

      I just tried with one of those with two batteries and with the switch on one side that turns on an LED and behaves even worse than yours. For as long as it receives the 5 charging volt sends the ESP32 a voltage of only 3.5 volts, which of course is not enough and the ESP32 disconnects.

      I also tried one of the rectangular ones, from a single battery, flashing red and blue while charging, and he also stops powering while charging.

      If you don't find any that keep the communication active and if this functionality is really important in your case then you could:
      – Use any PowerBank (so also your current one)
      – Derive two red and black wires directly from the + and – of the batteries (get them out of a hole but be careful that these two wires never touch because the batteries could suffer a lot, and the wires get hot and even catch fire) (eventually it would be good to add a fuse from 2 amps in series with the positive wire and near the batteries)
      – Connect the two wires to a step-up power supply that produces a 5 stable volt starting from 3.7…4.2 battery volts.

      You can easily find suitable step-ups on eBay, for example this:

      However IotHAL should (If possible) reconnect by yourself. I just tried the version 1.4 and reconnects, if yours doesn't maybe you are using an older version. Or perhaps the power supply of the ESP32 is missing for too short a time or it does not come back with enough voltage and the ESP32 does not reset well or cannot reconnect to the network.

      After the IotHAL has reconnected the writing remains “The IotModule has lost the configuration” which is used to know that in some past moment the configuration has been lost. But the FPS box should indicate a communication frequency (not zero) and it should no longer be with the red background. And this indicates that everything is fully operational again.


      Pay attention to the cables that are used to power the ESP32 !!!

      Just today trying the Power Banks I discovered that the cables count a lot.
      The tension starting from the PowerBank was about 5 volts
      – With round black cable, one meter long, the voltage on the ESP32 was 4.74 V
      – With flat white cable, long 30 cm, the voltage on the ESP32 was 4.2 .. 4.4 V

      I expected the short cable to go better but no,
      it goes so badly that the ESP32 occasionally disconnects.

      After an hour the PowerBank was up a little’ downloaded and gave alone 4.8 V
      The voltage with the short lead was lowered to approx 4 volts,
      and of course the ESP32 disconnected and just didn't work anymore.

      So I tried to change the cable and put the black one.
      The voltage on the ESP32 has risen to 4.6 V
      And now it's been hours !

      So before blaming PowerBanks or short-lasting batteries.
      Look for the right cables!!!

  5. Gabriel says:

    Good evening,

    I am a chemist and I recently approached the world of Theremino. In particular, I'm interested in gamma spectrometry and find it really fascinating, also in didactic terms, the possibility of combining MCA with THEREMIN (in configuration “radioactivity”) to hear the “music” of radioactive isotopes. I did several tests with a NaI detector(TL) purchased on the net and everything works very well, but I was wondering what settings to use on THEREMIN to differentiate as much as possible the music of one isotope from that of another.
    I would like to point out that my skills are very few in the field of audio. Anyway, i noticed that in the configuration “radioactivity” the system actually uses only a few of the virtual music keys: accordingly, two isotopes can be distinguished easily only if they have very distant peaks (for example Cs-137 and Am-241, with main peaks respectively a 662 and 59 Kev), while, for example,, it becomes difficult to appreciate the difference between an Am-241 source and the Th-234 of a Fiestaware turntable (peak at 92 Kev). I tried to tweak a bit, for example by changing the chords you can improve something, but not by much. So I ask if you have any useful information to give me and I thank you in any case.

    • Livio says:

      I'm sorry but we haven't done much more than what is in the configuration “Radioactivity”. If you managed to make it sound and even improve it a little’ you probably know even more now than we do.

      Probably you can't do that much with audio, and you will never get the resolution obtainable by looking at a graph.

      Maybe you could make an application in Theremino_Automation language, or even with VbNet, which could read the output slots of the MCA doing complex reasoning, linearize the data or make it logarithmic, select the notes to use, use different notes for each isotope… etc… And at the end write in other Slots the processed values ​​that would make the Theremin application sound.

      But the question is: it would be worth it? At bottom “to listen” it's just a curiosity. While “to look” it works much better. So I wouldn't waste too much time on it, I would use it as it is now and the real analyzes I would do with the graphs.

      • Gabriel says:

        Hello Livio,

        thanks for your prompt reply. I agree with you: music is nothing more than a curiosity and what really matters are the graphs of the spectra! My interest in the audio aspect arises mainly to make teaching radioactivity more interesting for my students.
        Very interesting what you say about the possibility of creating an application in Theremino_Automation, I will try to think about it and eventually I will come back to disturb you!
        Thank you for all the wonderful work you do for the benefit of so many enthusiasts!!!

        • Livio says:

          Thanks to you for the compliments. And ask whenever you need it, It is not a disorder. And thanks for writing here on the blog instead of sending us private emails. Each post here in the blog can be of help to everyone.

          And best wishes for your lessons “radioactive”. which will surely provoke a special interest in the boys, always attracted by dangers and forbidden things. If you haven't already, I recommend that you buy kilos of potash and pumice stone. They are completely free for sale and you can also eat them. But when you have some kilos, they produce quite a lot’ of radioactivity.

  6. Giacomo Rucci says:

    Good evening, I need a little help. Following your advice, I “manipulated” your little program, the Theremino_Logger, to structure it in such a way as to use it for a research project to be presented to my staff in order to set up an open source methodology for measuring the energy metabolism of work activities. To be used for microclimatic risk assessments in work environments. But now this program, still being completed, it works on my home pc with windows 10 but not on the one in my office that always has Windows 10 e framework 3.5. In practice, the .exe does not start when double-clicked. I state that all your original applications, including the Theremino_Logger, instead they work perfectly on my office pc. Something comes to mind that I'm wrong? If I have to send you the source, kindly indicate to me which email. Thank you

    • Livio says:

      Hello, we will fix it easily

      Write to engineering at theremino dot com
      or call me on skype where you can find me as livio_enrico

      And this also applies to others, just call, We're here for.

  7. Antonio says:

    Hello Livio, I am struggling with a project in which I need to measure the current in a precise and stable way,and to do this I would like to use the voltage-current sensor (differential version) proposed by you. The parameters to be measured are max voltage +/- 15V and max current 1A. In your project when it comes to raising the common tolerable way to +/- 300V ( where I find myself the range +/- 15V) it is proposed to replace R2 and R3 with resistors from 100 Mohm but in the brackets I notice that it is written (R3, R4, R5 and R6 = 1 Mega and trimmer = 47k, as shown in the diagram), at this point something is wrong with R3, what value to adopt? For the measurement of the current in the required range I will adopt R0 da 0.1 Ohm. The proposed sensor is sensitive and stable? I've already tried, unfortunately, with other sensors but the measurement of the current in the range useful to me (50-500mA) it is not stable. Thanks for all the suggestions you will be able to give me. I have been following you for years now and once again congratulations on your site and your professionalism.

  8. Livio says:

    I don't understand what's wrong
    – R3, R4, R5 and R6 = 1 Mega
    – trimmer = 47k
    – With R1 and R2 from 10 mega get a common way of +/- 33 V (it wouldn't be enough for you?)
    – With R1 and R2 from 100 mega get a common way of +/- 330 V

    They wouldn't be enough for you +/- 33 Common mode V ?
    Please note that accuracy decreases as you increase R1 and R2 in value
    So with a full scale of +/- 33V you will have a resolution and precision around 10 MV
    While with full scale of +/- 330V you will have a resolution and precision around 100 MV

    With respect to the “sensitive” the same law always applies, that is, you can have a resolution (therefore sensitivity) equal to about one ten thousandth of the full scale.

    And with regard to stability, the numbers will also dance to that order of magnitude (one thousandth of the full scale at most), but if you do the moving average over time you can also greatly increase the stability. If you read the values ​​with our Master and our HAL application you will be able to adjust the filter to obtain even much greater stability.


    To obtain much greater accuracy and stability, you could use the ADC 24.
    It costs a little’ but you would no longer need this circuit or even need to calibrate the trimmers.
    Read its instructions to see what it can do:

    To measure the current you will need to set a differential channel and put the right resistors for the ranges you need.
    I'm not doing the calculations but you can get there by yourself and then just try and if it doesn't go well it will only be a matter of changing two resistors.

    • Antonio says:

      hi Livio,thanks for the quick reply and the suggestions proposed.
      In the project it is written R2 and R3 by 100 MOhm e non R1 e R2. From the project:
      “Increase the common way tolerable to +/- 300 Volts
      Replacing R2 and R3 with resistors from 100 Mega Ohm (R3, R4, R5 and R6 = 1 Mega and trimmer = 47k, as shown in the diagram), you get the following voltage range:…” The value of R3 is repeated twice. If I'm wrong, I offer you my apologies right now. Have a good Saturday.

      • Livio says:

        You were right, it was wrong in three places, thanks for finding these errors.
        It should now be okay but if you find any other errors write to us.

        Should it happen that you still see the previous page, then you need to clear your browser cache.

  9. Antonio says:

    Hello Livio, I believe there is an error in the first table or second table:
    “With this scheme the circuit tolerates common-mode voltages up to +/- 33 Volts and with the replacement of R9 gets the following voltage range:

    Voltages from -10 MV to +10 MV with a resolution of 0.3 micro Volts (R9 = 1.5 Mega)
    Voltages from -15 MV to +15 MV with a resolution of 0.5 micro Volts (R9 = 1Mega)
    Voltages from -30 MV to +30 MV with a resolution of 1 micro Volts (R9 = 470k)
    Voltages from -100 MV to +100 MV with a resolution of 3 micro Volts (R9 = 150 k)
    Voltages from -150 MV to +150 MV with a resolution of 5 micro Volts (R9 = 100 k)
    Voltages from -300 MV to +300 MV with a resolution of 10 micro Volts (R9 = 47k)
    Voltages from -1 V a +1 V with a resolution of 30 micro Volts (R9 = 15 k)
    Voltages from -1.5 V a +1.5 V with a resolution of 50 micro Volts (R9 = 10 k)
    Voltages from -3 V a +3 V with a resolution of 100 micro Volts (R9 = 0)
    ” the voltage range stops at 3V and not 33V as stated above! here R1 and R2 are as per scheme 10MOhm and R3 = R4 = R5 = R6 = 1MOhm.
    In the second table:
    “Reduce the common way tolerable to +/- 3.3 Volts
    By replacing R3, R4, R5 and R6 with resistors of 10 MOhm and the two trimmers from 470 Kohm, you get the following voltage range:

    Voltages from -10 MV to +10 MV with a resolution of 0.3 micro Volts (R9 = 150 k)
    Voltages from -15 MV to +15 MV with a resolution of 0.5 micro Volts (R9 = 100 k)
    Voltages from -30 MV to +30 MV with a resolution of 1 micro Volts (R9 = 47k)
    Voltages from -100 MV to +100 MV with a resolution of 3 micro Volts (R9 = 15 k)
    Voltages from -150 MV to +150 MV with a resolution of 5 micro Volts (R9 = 10 k)
    Voltages from -300 MV to +300 MV with a resolution of 10 micro Volts (R9 = 4.7 k)
    Voltages from -1 V a +1 V with a resolution of 30 micro Volts (R9 = 1.5 k)
    Voltages from -1.5 V a +1.5 V with a resolution of 50 micro Volts (R9 = 1 k)
    Voltages from -3 V a +3 V with a resolution of 100 micro Volts (R9 = 0 ohm resistor)

    so with values ​​of R1 = R2 = 10MOhm and R3, R4, R5, R6 = 10MOhm I always get the same range?
    Something is not right. That's why I initially proposed for the +/- 15V range with 100MOhm resistors. If once again I'm wrong, forgive me.
    A good evening

    • Livio says:

      In the second table R3, R4, R5 e R6, and also the two trimmers, they all increased tenfold. So the amplification of the first stage is ten times greater and the circuit saturates with the common mode of +/- 3.3V instead of that +/- 33V

      But with the second table we get exactly the same voltage ranges because R9 is reduced ten times (to the right of each line in parentheses).

      Seems right to me, write us again if you don't like it.

  10. Maximum says:

    Good morning. I just discovered the theremino project, I wanted to understand more and do some tests to learn how it works. I turned the site, but I haven't found a clear path, a tutorial to follow me step-by-step with simple examples to get you started. I haven't found a book that gives me a path to follow. I have attempted to purchase hardware, but the site no longer exists (I also point it out to update the site). I come from the Arduino world where, after explaining the basics, classic examples are found: turn on an led, read a potentiometer or the status of a button, drive a motor or a servo. Here I can't figure out which hardware to buy to be able to do these things, and above all where to buy it so as not to take trash. I need help, Thank you.

  11. Livio says:

    This conversation has been moved here from the news page which is good to leave free for the news.

    Cosimo Miccoli – 14/12/2021 at 21:58
    Hi , I have recently discovered your software seems excellent to me. I am passionate about radio reception,I downloaded Theremino SDR but I can't start it, I launched zadig, restarted, but nothing. I safely use SDRSharp, could you give me some advice?
    greetings and thanks

    Livio – 15/12/2021 at 09:27
    In what sense "it does not start" ?
    The application does not present the window on the desktop ?
    The application opens but then does not connect with the frontend ?

    You extracted the files from the ZIP and put them in your own folder ?
    It is a folder that does not require special permissions ?
    What operating system do you use ?

    If you can't contact me on Skype as livio_enrico
    (and on occasion remind me of what we were talking about ...)

    Cosimo Miccoli – 15/12/2021 at 12:45
    Hello Livio, about the SDR, the application opens, at the moment I press on Run, mi da la scritta ” RTL-SDR/USB is either not connected or its driver is not working properly”.
    However, I have run zadig several times. I use windows 10, i extracted the files from the zip and booted from its folder. There may be missing files in the folder?
    Thank you

    Livio – 15/12/2021 at 13:42
    In ThereminoSDR folder there should be six DLLs, an EXE and an INI (and also a DOCS folder but it doesn't count). Maybe try deleting the INI and then relaunching the EXE.

    I have tried now to check it with the latest Windows updates 10 and it worked right away.

    That is due to the USB not communicating well?
    Try changing the USB socket.
    Try to start ThereminoSDR as administrator.
    Make sure you set the right type with ZADIG (I don't remember well but it seems to me that there were two possibilities and maybe WinUSB was the best ...)

    Retry SDRSharp, with him it works?
    However it is really strange, this app has always worked at all.

    It may be the type of receiver that is not compatible?
    In this case, the only way to understand what happens would be to call me on Skype and then also install VisualStudio 2008 (CSharp) and then show me what happens in the code and what error occurs.

    Cosimo Miccoli – 15/12/2021 at 18:36
    Hello Livio, i can't contact you with skype, I did all the tests you recommended. But nothing to do Sdrsharp works great and I changed two SDRs , including the USB port.
    Visualstudio non lo installa mi da ” Error occurred during setup “

    Livio – 15/12/2021 at 22:40
    Woh, a nice set of things that don't work!

    That you don't even install VisualStudio is really amazing.

    Then, my skype nick is: livio_enrico
    It has to work, you wrote it all in small letters and with underscore in the middle ?
    Give me your skype nickname or write me at engineering at theremino dot com
    so then we exchange the phone number.

    However, do not worry, when we can communicate we will make everything work, maybe through "chrome remote desktop"

  12. Alessandro Rosso says:

    Good morning.
    I use theremino on a CNC milling machine and I am very happy with it
    I'm finishing a CNC with plasma.
    The problem is that cutting very thin sheet metal is deformed,therefore there would be the need to make a zeroing every time it makes a hole or cuts a template.
    It is possible to do a push button reset ( calibrate) with captative keypad but inserting it in a gcode.
    Thank you

    • Livio says:

      I'm sorry, from GCode it cannot be done, the CNC application should be modified. We won't have time to do it this year, but anyone with a minimum of programming experience could do it.

      My advice is to find someone who can make this change and help him by starting to do some manual tests and precisely identify what are the operations to be carried out..
      – A GCode command that presses the key would suffice “SetZeta HOME” ?
      – Then it would take a break to wait for the end of the operation ?

  13. Alessandro Rosso says:

    With G92enn you can't do it as if it were an extruder

    • Livio says:

      Sorry, but I did not understand, yours was a question or statement ?
      Propose to use the G92 (without parameters) to press the button “Set Zeta Home” as if I pressed it manually ?
      And then maybe add a break in GCode with G04 .

      And done so it would work ?
      You tried to do this manually to check if the sequence I assumed would work ?

  14. Alessandro Rosso says:

    Yes I have tried but it does not recognize it G92 does not

    • Livio says:

      I know you don't recognize it.

      In fact I asked if you tried to do it manually:
      – A “Set zeta home” (as if it were being executed by GCode)
      – And then take a break (as if the gcode were executing a G04)

      By doing so you can reset?

      Would work ?

  15. Alessandro Rosso says:

    Set zeta home set it to 10 mm above 0 piece
    To reset I use calibrate z and it resets very well

    • Livio says:

      Quite right!
      I made a mistake in writing "Set zeta home", I meant “Calibrate Z”

      So let me understand, it might work if…
      – Se a G92 (without parameters) pressed the key “Calibrate Z” and then did it while the GCode walks.
      – And if you then add a G04 pause in the GCode to give the reset time to finish.

      But how would he reset himself?
      You do not have to manually place a plate connected with a wire in the right slot every time?

  16. Alessandro Rosso says:

    I close the contact between the plasma torch tip (which is isolated) with the sheet to be cut.

    • Livio says:

      So if we added the G92 pressing the “Calibrate Z” key you think it would be enough?
      My intuition tells me that other problems will come up that you have not analyzed and that therefore we will only waste time. But if you want I try.

      But before starting (since even for a modification apparently so’ simple hours it takes…) do me the pleasure of simulating everything at least once, doing it manually and tell me you did it, and how long you have to wait before restarting the GCODE.

  17. Alessandro Rosso says:

    Ok thank you
    However, for the time it is not a problem because G4 I can manage it from GCode with a pos processor

  18. Alessandro Rosso says:

    Good morning
    I had to add a relay that cuts the pilot arc in the reset phase.
    However it works

    • Livio says:

      I am trying to add the G92 that performs a "Calibrate Z".
      It is not easy because it must be done during the execution of the GCODE and this was not expected but I hope to succeed.
      For now I have found that the G92 (with parameters) it already works but you have to be careful not to add comments in the same line because otherwise it gives an error.

      As soon as I manage to do something useful, I will send you a trial version.

  19. Eugene says:

    I built two theremino MCA for gamma spectrometry and they work great when they do. At times, however, they are overtaken by the noise and show no data. Interestingly, that happens to both of my devices at the same time… The day when they work – both of them are working fine, but when they are possessed by that noise it happens to both of them as well. I suspect there is perhaps an environmental influence… may be humidity? I cannot figure it out.

  20. Eugene says:

    in addition to the previous question. I noticed that the noise is induced by increasing the voltage or me touching the detector (ground). Once the noise starts it doesn’t go away. It seems like it is a self-oscillating noise in the transistor amplifier. Perhaps reducing gain will help to eliminate this noise?

    • Livio says:

      The transistor amplifier has a configuration that can not oscillate, and can not oscillate also if it is build with wrong component values.
      Maybe there is a possibility if the transistors T3 is a darlington and not normal NPN transistor.
      By the way please check all the component values in the area C8, C9, R8, R9, R1, Q10, C11, R11, R12, R13, C12.

      And also check if this area is build with short connections…

      The PCB is exactly as projected by us, or maybe it is different, with long or strange tracks ?

      The GND is well connected to the PC ?

  21. Livio says:

    Probably some points are poorly insulated, for example the welds in the BNC connectors, and discharges are generated on the high voltage.
    Maybe reducing the PMT voltage could solve this problem.
    But to understand the problem we need more data.

    What PMT tube you are using ?
    Both the devices are identical ?
    What voltage you set?
    What crystal, NaiTl?
    The PCB is our version with the integrated audio card chip on the PCB?
    The PCB is professionally produced with the solder protective layer ?

    • Eugene says:

      checked the welds, no problem there
      both devices are identical
      when both devices work they do work with high or low voltage(550-1100v)
      crystal NaI(Tl), R6095
      PCB is professionally made with protective layer, audio card chip is not on PCB.

      As I said, most puzzling is that periods of normal functioning and non-working always coincide – they either both work properly or they both don’t work, always at the same time. I think there’s an outside factor that cases the problem…
      I tried on two different computers, it doesn’t solve the problem.

  22. Eugene says:

    On the days when it doesn’t work, even plugging in the sound card freezes the whole computer. Plugging it without the PMT doesn’t freeze the computer.

    Also I noticed that the noise as it appears on the Theremino screen is the same as when you accidentally unplug the USB sound card before closing down Theremino MCA program.

    • Livio says:

      Maybe some USB or OS quirks?
      We are sorry but no one has encountered similar problems, so you will have to find the solution yourself with many experiments.

  23. Andrew Ro says:

    Hello! In the IotHAL section – Radio communication with IotModule (ESP32) – there is no firmware for esp32. It should be in the root folder “IotModule”. What's the reason?

    • theremino says:

      I looked now and the firmware is in the IotHal section
      – Open this link
      – Or if you prefer it in English this is it :

      – Go down until you meet the large image of the ESP32 and its PINs
      – Come down again
      – The first GREEN links are the documentation
      – Come down again
      – The three GREEN lines are the link to the FIRMWARE

      Then below there are also the links of the IotHAL application that you will need to configure the PINs and communicate with the module.

      All our links are always located towards the end of each section and are recognizable by the green background color.

      • Andrew Ro says:

        Thanks for the quick response! The link does have a zip file. However, it does not contain firmware. There are only source texts of the program (.h files). I believe the firmware is .bin files.

        • Livio says:

          The Esp32 module must be programmed with the ArduinoIDE, as explained in our documentation.

          Perhaps there may also be other methods to program it from a BIN file, but in this case you would not be able to use them because you have to specify the network name and password before compiling and programming.

          In addition, there are many other useful parameters in the configuration file, also to be modified before recompiling and programming.

          Ultimately, using the Arduino IDE is a very convenient method, you just need the USB, you don’t need a programmer and you can also edit and recompile in a few seconds.

  24. Marco Corbetta says:

    Salve , I loaded the program “Theremino WiFi v1.1” on my system with 11th Gen Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-11700KF @ 3.60GHz 3.60 GHz , 32GB ram , ssd and windows 11 updated: the program starts and displays the signals then crashes with the following error message : overflow error …. and in detail the following:

    ************** Exception text **************
    System.OverflowException: Overflow error.
    in System.Drawing.Graphics.CheckErrorStatus(Int32 status)
    in System.Drawing.Graphics.DrawLine(Pen pen, Single x1, Single y1, Single x2, Single y2)
    in Theremino_WiFi.SignalGraph.UpdateChannels(PictureBox pbox)

    And’ can resolve the error?
    Thanks for the reply
    Marco Corbetta

    • Livio says:

      I left only the first few lines which are the only ones a bit’ Significant.

      The right method would be:
      – Communicate via Skype
      – Install Visual Studio on the PC that gives the error
      – Let me see the error through Skype and try to fix it

      We will try to do something even in the dark, maybe I can send you a trial version, but to send it to you it will still take Skype, otherwise in the mail does not pass.

      Find me on skype as livio_enrico

  25. Andrea says:

    Good morning, use theremino on a CNC. Now I would like to replace the cutter with a laser module of the commercial ones that you also describe on the site.
    I read that the PIN 11 is intended to control off-on precisely the laser, but I did not understand where the command wire should be taken. among other things I read that not from the 5volt but less .
    Can you explain better the connection procedure?. Thank you

    • Livio says:

      You need to set the Master module with a PWM output PIN (for adjustable power) or DigOut (for on or off).
      From this PIN comes a voltage between 0 and 3.3 Volts (0 = off and 3.3 Volt = on)
      If you set it as PWM the voltage is sent in pulses with variable duty cycle.

      The follow-up depends on the laser you intend to use and you should have enough knowledge of electronics to read the characteristics of your laser and understand for yourself how to make connections. You will have to understand how to feed it and also if it will be necessary to interpose a control module between the Master and the Laser, for example this:

      Or this:

      In the links that I have indicated everything is explained, much better than I can explain to you in these messages.
      In any case, what we have written are only general indications, They must be adapted to the laser you intend to use and you will also have to put your head on it and experiment with various solutions until you find a balance that satisfies you, taking great care in tests to avoid producing smoke and roasting.

      If you do not feel sure of what you do maybe it would be better to abandon this project because Lasers cost a lot and break easily.

      If you need consistent help maybe call me on Skype as livio_enrico, So we talk and do it faster. Or write me at and then maybe we talk by phone.

      Hello, Livio

  26. max56fe says:

    Hello Livio, I downloaded the sample wav files for Spectra, but I don't understand how to upload them and see them in Theremino MCA, Okay that my 67 years complicate things but can you tell me how to do it ? I usually use Becqueremonitor and I'm starting with Intherspec but as you certainly know none of the 2 handles WAV files unfortunately, Thank you

    • Livio says:

      I can't find them… What files are they?, What are they called?, What page did you get them from??

      If they are audio files (MP3 or WAV) then you should play them with any Windows audio player and then set the box at the bottom of the panel “Audio input” of our MCA application on “Stereo Mixing” or on “What you feel” and finally adjust “Audio gain” and “Energy trimmer” To match the energies (Cesium A 660 nm approx., Americium to 59 nm etc..)
      If your Windows is missing “Stereo Mixing” or “What you feel” Then it becomes more difficult because you would have to drop the sound card output back to “Line IN” with a cable or install virtual cables such as “Virtual audio cable”.

      But this read the audio files, that you wouldn't do in normal use, it is only used to simulate an audio signal coming from a PMT and see the graph. And our site is already full of sample charts, So this is just a pretty useless experiment and a waste of time.

      Hello, Anyway you're in good company, I've got 71.

  27. Anonymous says:

    Hello Livio, are yours -47k_10nF_ConCesio.wav-177.wav-226_5_Nov.wav-cs137_47k_10nF.wav etc. etc.

    • Livio says:

      Hi I tried the first file “GS1100A-48khz _ CS137_1000pps” And it worked. But you have to calibrate just to see the cesium line in the right place.
      And unfortunately, if you change files, the calibration you have done will no longer be correct unless all the files you use were made with the same probe and in the same conditions.

  28. Anonymous says:

    Hello Livio, I'm just reading now and I thank you.
    I'm that iz4kjs from the -PROBE SELECTION GUIDE …… –

  29. Kaarlo says:

    Question about Diffraction Grating Spectrometer hardware:
    linear CCD array 3,5 kpixels, 16 bit ADC and USB connector, and not too expensive
    Do those work with Theremino spectrometer?

    • Anonymous says:

      Theremino Spectrometer works only with a WebCam.

      A webcam with about 2400 horizontal pixels costs less than this array and produces a standard signal, more easy to read from the software.

      • Anonymous says:

        For example this ( 2560 horizzontal pixels ) that costs one half of the array:

        Moreover with a webcam you see what you are taking, for example if there are reflections.

        • Kaarlo says:

          It “feels more certain” for hobbyist to achieve optical system with finer resolution on much longer sensor, and using larger number of grating lines.
          …And I have opto/mechanical part of old spectometer, where that focused spectral line is about same lenght as that line sensor.
          (that original has only “single frequency at a time” design, with photomultiplier)

          • Anonymous says:

            Sorry but to modify our app for the sensor array should be very very difficult.

            • Kaarlo says:

              Without many potential users, for someone to write even a small “middle-driver”, that recognizes module in USB port, sends timing info and retrieves line data, and converts 1D line into pseudo-2D image, and fakes that to system as webcam stream… (should work??)
              Better to ask that from hardware creators, if they want to sell it..

              • Livio says:

                What you wrote can be done, but it would be even longer to write and then also complicated for users to use, as they would have to install a driver and configure various options.

                If someone has a month or two to dedicate to this project the right way would be to open our application with Visual Studio 2008 and start studying it and meditating for a few days on how it could be modified to read an array of pixels via serial, instead of reading a WebCam.

                I wrote the application and I really don’t recommend making it work with both the webcam and the linear sensor but rather copying it and changing its name.

                Then the willing person should begin the long work:
                – Find a new name for the application.
                – Delete all parts that read the WebCam.
                – Start testing sensor data reading.
                – Edit the Form1 in all parts relating to the image
                – Delete all the boxes that refer to the width and height of the image
                – Delete the Form2 used to edit the WebCam properties
                – Add new boxes to adjust the properties of the new sensor.
                – Carry out weeks of tests to verify that you can make the calibrations and that the precision of the data you read is reasonable.
                – Carry out other tests with various types of light samples and check that the graphs obtained are correct.
                – Open the Help file with OpenOffice and rewrite a good half of it (you also need to redo all the images because the application will be very different and it is a very long job, at least a week)

                Having written almost 150 applications for the Theremino system, I know perfectly well how much it could take a good and fast programmer, and it’s no less than a month to work like I do (10 hours a day always on the same project and without distractions).

                My final assessment is that the results obtainable are not worth all this time. And, I'm sorry, but we have numerous projects underway that are potentially more useful to a large number of people.

                Furthermore, the improvement that would be achieved is not much and while there are millions of people who have a WebCam, those who have that sensor are very few.

  30. Vincenzo says:

    Hello Livio, It would be possible to send to the “signal scope” a signal taken near the wire of a spark plug in internal combustion engines? The idea is to record a period of pulses.
    Thank you

    • Livio says:

      And’ certainly possible, but perhaps it would be better to use the DAA, which goes up to 20 KHz.

      Let's do the math…
      I believe that an internal combustion engine should make a spark on a spark plug every lap (about)
      So a 9000 Laps would be 9000 / 60 i.e. 150 Sparks per second
      And 150 Hz, however measurable they may be, would give very inaccurate results on the SignalScope which has a limit around 500 Hz caused by USB.

      So I recommend that you use the DAA, which has a limit of 20 KHz and sampling at 44 Khz and that therefore the 150 Hz sees it with absolute precision.

      You can find the DAA here:

      And what's more, with the DAA, you don't even need the Master module, just take a 3mm jack and connect it to the microphone input that already exists in all PCs

      The cable that starts from the jack must be shielded and can be many meters long. It would be good to weld it on the tip (center wire) a resistor from 10 K and then a long unshielded thread 5 centimeters to be brought closer to the spark plug wire. And finally, a small piece of heat-shrinkable tubing will cover the resistor and make the joints strong.

      The resistor is used to limit the current and safely protect the microphone input (which is already protected inside the PC at all times) In case you touch something under tension, with bare parts of the center thread.

      To use the DAA, read its instructions and if you can't, write to me, Hello.

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